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A

PROJECT REPORT ON

“STUDY ON LIQUID AND SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN A RESTAURANT”

 

 

UNDER SUPERVISION OF

………………

  

SUBMITTED BY

 

 NAME                         : …………………………

 ENROLLMENT NO   :          ……………….

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for qualifying

POST GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN FOOD SAFETY AND QUALITY

MANAGEMENT (PGDFSQM)

 

Indira Gandhi National Open University

Maidan Garhi,

New Delhi – 110068

NOVEMBER, 2017

          

 

CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY

This is to certify that the project “STUDY ON LIQUID AND SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN A RESTAURANT” is an original work of the Student and is being submitted  PARDEEP SEHRAWAT in partial fulfillment for the award of the POST GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN FOOD SAFETY AND QUALITY MANAGEMENT (PGDFSQM)” degree of INDIRA GANDHI NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY.  This report has not been submitted earlier either to this University or to any other University/Institution for the fulfillment of the requirement of a course of study.

 

 

 

SIGNATURE OF SUPERVISOR                                     SIGNATURE OF STUDENT                                                   

Place:             New Delhi                                                                 Place: New Delhi

Date : :    /     /2017                                                                     Date : :    /     /2017                

 

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

With Candor and Pleasure I take opportunity to express my sincere thanks and obligation to my esteemed guide …………………….  It is because of her able and mature guidance and co-operation without which it would not have been possible for me to complete my project.

Finally, I gratefully acknowledge the support, encouragement & patience of my family, and as always, nothing in my life would be possible without God, Thank You!

 

NAME:…………………….

ENROLLMENT NO   : ……………..        

 

 

DECLARATION

I hereby declare that this project work titled “STUDY ON LIQUID AND SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN A RESTAURANT” is my original work and no part of it has been submitted for any other degree purpose or published in any other from till date.

 

NAME:………………….

ENROLLMENT NO   :  …………….


TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER   CONTENTS PAGE NO
Certificate

Acknowledgement

 

 

  Declaration
  Title of the project
1 Introduction to the Study
2 Review of Literature
3 Objectives and Hypothesis of the study
4 Research Methodology
5 Data Analysis & Interpretation
6 Findings and Recommendations
7. Conclusion
8 Limitation of the study
9.

10.

 

Bibliography

Annexure

Questionnaire

 

 

 

 


TITLE OF THE PROJECT

“STUDY ON LIQUID AND SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN A RESTAURANT”

 


CHAPTER – 1

 

INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY

WASTE – SOURCES OF WASTE

The different source of wastes can be identified by recognizing the types of wastes. Let us first define the term waste. Waste is any substance which is discarded after primary use or in other words, it is of no use. We generate a huge amount of wastes in our day to day life. The groundnut shells that we throw after eating or the chips wrappers that we discard after consuming the chips are all parts of the activities that contribute to the generation of waste.

Types of Waste

In general, the wastes may be classified into the following categories:

  • Solid wastes –
  • Liquid wastes – 
  • Gaseous wastes – 


Sources of Wastes

Generation of waste is a part and parcel of day-to-day human life. Wastes can be generated from various sources.

  • Municipal sources of wastes
  • Medical or Clinical sources of wastes
  • Agricultural sources of wastes
  • Industrial Sources of Wastes
  • Wastes from Construction or Demolition
  • Commercial Sources
  • Mining Sources
  • Radioactive Sources
  • Electronic sources of waste

 

 

WASTE MANAGEMENT

Waste management or waste disposals are all the activities and actions required to manage waste from its inception to its final disposal. This includes amongst other things collection, transport, treatment and disposal of waste together with monitoring and regulation. It also encompasses the legal and regulatory framework that relates to waste management encompassing guidance on recycling.

 

CENTRAL PRINCIPLES OF WASTE MANAGEMENT

There are a number of concepts about waste management which vary in their usage between countries or regions. Some of the most general, widely used concepts include:

 

Waste hierarchy

The waste hierarchy refers to the “3 Rs” reduce, reuse and recycle, which classify waste management strategies according to their desirability in terms of waste minimization. The waste hierarchy remains the cornerstone of most waste minimization strategies. The aim of the waste hierarchy is to extract the maximum practical benefits from products and to generate the minimum amount of waste; see: resource recovery. The waste hierarchy is represented as a pyramid because the basic premise is for policy to take action first and prevent the generation of waste. The next step or preferred action is to reduce the generation of waste i.e. by re-use.

 

Life-cycle of a product

The life-cycle begins with design, then proceeds through manufacture, distribution, use and then follows through the waste hierarchy’s stages of reduce, reuse and recycle. Each of the above stages of the life-cycle offers opportunities for policy intervention, to rethink the need for the product, to redesign to minimize waste potential, to extend its use. The key behind the life-cycle of a product is to optimize the use of the world’s limited resources by avoiding the unnecessary generation of waste.

 

Resource efficiency

Resource efficiency reflects the understanding that current, global, economic growth and development cannot be sustained with the current production and consumption patterns. Globally, we are extracting more resources to produce goods than the planet can replenish. Resource efficiency is the reduction of the environmental impact from the production and consumption of these goods, from final raw material extraction to last use and disposal. This process of resource efficiency can address sustainability.

 

Polluter-pays principle

The polluter-pays principle is a principle where the polluting party pays for the impact caused to the environment. With respect to waste management, this generally refers to the requirement for a waste generator to pay for appropriate disposal of the unrecoverable material.

 

WASTE HANDLING AND TRANSPORT

Waste collection methods vary widely among different countries and regions. Domestic waste collection services are often provided by local government authorities, or by private companies for industrial and commercial waste. Some areas, especially those in less developed countries, do not have formal waste-collection systems.

 

Waste handling practices

Curbside collection is the most common method of disposal in most European countries, Canada, New Zealand and many other parts of the developed world in which waste is collected at regular intervals by specialized trucks. This is often associated with curb-side waste segregation. In rural areas waste may need to be taken to a transfer station. Waste collected is then transported to an appropriate disposal facility. In some areas, vacuum collection is used in which waste is transported from the home or commercial premises by vacuum along small bore tubes. Systems are in use in Europe and North America.

Pyrolysis is used for disposal of some wastes including tires, a process that can produce recovered fuels, steel and heat. In some cases tires can provide the feedstock for cement manufacture. Such systems are used in USA, California, Australia, Greece, Mexico, the United Kingdom and in Israel. The RESEM pyrolysis plant that has been operational at Texas USA since December 2011, and processes up to 60 tons per day. In some jurisdictions unsegregated waste is collected at the curb-side or from waste transfer stations and then sorted into recyclables and unusable waste. Such systems are capable of sorting large volumes of solid waste, salvaging recyclables, and turning the rest into bio-gas and soil conditioner.

 

DISPOSAL METHODS

  • Landfill
  • Incineration

Incineration is a disposal method in which solid organic wastes are subjected to combustion so as to convert them into residue and gaseous products. This method is useful for disposal of residue of both solid waste management and solid residue from waste water management. This process reduces the volumes of solid waste to 20 to 30 percent of the original volume. Incineration and other high temperature waste treatment systems are sometimes described as “thermal treatment”. Incinerators convert waste materials into heat, gas, steam, and ash.

RECYCLING

Recycling is a resource recovery practice that refers to the collection and reuse of waste materials such as empty beverage containers. The materials from which the items are made can be reprocessed into new products. Material for recycling may be collected separately from general waste using dedicated bins and collection vehicles, a procedure called kerbside collection.

RE-USE

  • Biological reprocessing

Recoverable materials that are organic in nature, such as plant material, food scraps, and paper products, can be recovered through composting and digestion processes to decompose the organic matter. The resulting organic material is then recycled as mulch or compost for agricultural or landscaping purposes. In addition, waste gas from the process (such as methane) can be captured and used for generating electricity and heat (CHP/cogeneration) maximising efficiencies. The intention of biological processing in waste management is to control and accelerate the natural process of decomposition of organic matter.

 

  • Energy recovery

Energy recovery from waste is the conversion of non-recyclable waste materials into usable heat, electricity, or fuel through a variety of processes, including combustion, gasification, pyrolyzation, anaerobic digestion, and landfill gas recovery. This process is often called waste-to-energy. Energy recovery from waste is part of the non-hazardous waste management hierarchy. Using energy recovery to convert non-recyclable waste materials into electricity and heat, generates a renewable energy source and can reduce carbon emissions by offsetting the need for energy from fossil sources as well as reduce methane generation from landfills. Globally, waste-to-energy accounts for 16% of waste management.

Pyrolysis

Pyrolysis is a process of thermo-chemical decomposition of organic materials by heat in the absence of oxygen which produces various hydrocarbon gases. During pyrolysis, the molecules of object are subjected to very high temperatures leading to very high vibrations. Therefore, every molecule in the object is stretched and shaken to an extent that molecules starts breaking down. The rate of pyrolysis increases with temperature. In industrial applications, temperatures are above 430 °C (800 °F). Fast pyrolysis produces liquid fuel for feedstocks like wood. Slow pyrolysis produces gases and solid charcoal.Pyrolysis hold promise for conversion of waste biomass into useful liquid fuel. Pyrolysis of waste plastics can produce millions of litres of fuel.

Resource recovery

Resource recovery is the systematic diversion of waste, which was intended for disposal, for a specific next use. It is the processing of recyclables to extract or recover materials and resources, or convert to energy. These activities are performed at a resource recovery facility. Resource recovery is not only environmentally important, but it is also cost-effective. It decreases the amount of waste for disposal, saves space in landfills, and conserves natural resources.

 

 

Sustainability

The management of waste is a key component in a business’ ability of maintaining ISO14001 accreditation. Companies are encouraged to improve their environmental efficiencies each year by eliminating waste through resource recovery practices, which are sustainability-related activities. One way to do this is by shifting away from waste management to resource recovery practices like recycling materials such as glass, food scraps, paper and cardboard, plastic bottles and metal. An important market for recycled materials is the construction sector. Many inorganic waste streams can be used for the production of materials for construction.

 

Collection and disposal of contaminated waste

How to dispose of solid contaminated wastes

Solid contaminated waste (e.g., surgical specimens, used dressings and other items contaminated with blood and organic materials) may carry microorganisms.

STEP 1: Wear heavy-duty or utility gloves when handling and transporting contaminated solid wastes.

STEP 2: Dispose of contaminated solid wastes by placing them in a plastic or galvanized metal container with a tight-fitting cover.

STEP 3: Collect the waste container on a regular basis and transport the burnable ones to the incinerator or area for burning.

STEP 4: Remove utility gloves (wash daily or when visibly soiled and dry).

STEP 5: Wash and dry hands.

 

How to dispose of liquid contaminated wastes

 


CHAPTER – 2

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

 

 

ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS

A major issue concerning us in this regard is the disposal of the waste generated from the restaurant facilities. The solid and liquid wastes generated are very high in pollutant levels and cannot be discharged directly into municipal dumping sites or rivers.

Some 18,000 tonnes of carbon emissions are generated by food-related road traffic each year, much of it linked to restaurants; 75 per cent of the 600,000 tonnes of glass bottles junked every year by restaurants, cafés, bars, hotels and clubs never gets even close to a recycling plant; and a third of the food ordered by the trade is thrown away. So, right now, that distracting dinner for two is very much part of the problem. (McIvor, 2010)

 

GENERATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF WASTEWATER

Restaurant wastewater is the raw sewage which contain high density organic, suspended solids, oil and grease. It has high BOD, COD, suspended solids, oil and grease which pose serious harm to the environment and human health.

  • Characterization of Wastewater

 

  • Effects of Direct Discharge into Sewers/Inland Water Bodies:

 

 

TREATMENT OF WASTEWATER

Treatment Process Description

As per the operational procedure of treatment plant handling, the effluent generated is collected into collection cum equalization tank. It is then pumped to reaction tank. The desired chemical dosing is mixed properly. The chemical added for this purpose include lime, sodium meta- bisulphate and polyelectrolyte. The lime is added to make the pH in the range of 8-8.5.Coagulant is added at the rate of about 200mg/l.

Treatment Scheme

The Effluent Treatment Plant consists of the following treatment units:

Oil and grease trap

The wastewater from the kitchens is pre-treated separately for removal of oil and grease. For this purpose an O & G trap have been provided for the respective streams. The outgoing streams of O & G trap, guestrooms, common toilets, floor washing, restaurant and other sources join together at the bar screen chamber of the ETP.

Bar Screen

Raw sewage from the source is manually received into the bar screen chamber by gravity. Screen provided removes all floating and big size matter such as plastic bottles, polythene bags, glassed, stones etc; which may otherwise choke the pipeline and pumps.

Equalization Tank

Usually, sewage generation is more during morning hours and evening hours. Visually no sewage is generated during night hours. Any biological system needs constant feed for bacteria to work efficiently. Hence, it is important to put an equalization tank to collect the excess flow during peak hours and feed sewage in lean hours.

Transfer of sewage

The sewage transfer pump of non submersible type is provided. The operation of the pump is controlled manually. The sewage from equalization is transferred to aeration tank.

Aeration Tank

Here provision of air grid is made for thoroughly mixing of sewage to make it of homogenous quality and to keep the suspended matter in suspension and to avoid septic condition. Here the organic matter gets converted into new bio-mass. After activated sludge process the effluent is gravitated to clarifier.

Tube settler

The main objective of the settling tank is to separate water and sludge in achieving high suspended solid concentration for recirculation purpose. For this purpose tube settler is provided. Tube settler is a hopper bottom tank fitted with PVC synthetic tubular media.

Treated water collection tank

The treated water is collected from the tube settler and further pumped through the multimedia filter and activated carbon filter. Generally, the treated water is used for horticulture and miscellaneous uses or to sewerage system.

Sludge

The sludge from the tube settler is partially taken into aeration tank and excess sludge is removed once in a day and transferred to sludge holding tank and fed to sludge drying beds.

 

SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

Solid Waste Classification

Solid waste can be further classified into:

  • Biodegradable (Wet) waste comprising ofØ food, vegetable and non vegetarian waste
  • Non biodegradable (Dry) waste comprising of plastic bottles, papers, plastic wrappers, HDPE, LLDPE bags etc.

Solid wastes are segregated in different coloured dustbins based on the composition of waste to be disposed off. This segregation at source helps in the bigger problem of solid waste management. The various colour codes used are: Green for paper / Cardboard; BLUE for Plastics; RED for Food waste for composting purposes; BLACK for general mixed waste.

 

Management of Solid Waste:

Restaurants generate a tremendous amount of solid wastes including paper, cardboard, plastics, wood, food wastes, glass, metals, special wastes and hazardous wastes. Simple procedures such as assessing and monitoring the types and amounts of garbage thrown away each day can lead to significant savings for the restaurant, as well as monitoring and resizing your dumpsters and roll-offs. The first step in reducing the amount of waste a restaurant produces is to conduct a waste audit. Waste audits allow to physically see what waste is being produced. Most foodservice operations throw out a massive amount of garbage, most of which could be diverted. Most restaurants are “over serviced” meaning they have too many dumpsters or too frequent pickups. 75% of material in today’s landfill is recyclable or compostable, while 50-70% of the weight of a foodservice operation’s garbage consists of compostable food items. Food packaging makes up most of the remaining weight of the garbage’s bins, but account for around 70% of the volume of foodservice trash.

 

BEST ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

 

Grease

Any facility generating grease is required to have an interceptor or grease trap to prevent grease from entering sewer pipes. The size of the grease trap is based on the quality and quantity of wastewater flowing from facility. Likewise, the pump interval varies with the type/size of the unit and the amount of grease generated by the establishment.

  • Interior Grease Trap:
  • Exterior Grease Trap:

 Grease Control/Disposal 

  • Plumbing/Grease/Drain Additives
  • Proper maintenance of a properly sizedØ grease interceptor.
  • Products used must be composed of active bacteria and be designed to decompose the grease in the grease trap/grease interceptor (GT/GI).

Solids

Janitorial Cleaning

While cleaning a restaurant, there are some key things to do to minimize Waste water and minimize the damage to the sanitary sewer system.

  • Proper Cleaning Methods:
  • Choose a Safe Cleaning Solution: .
  • Dilute Properly:
  • Floor Mat, Equipment, and Exhaust Filter Washing:

 

MORE OPTIONS AVAILABLE TO REDUCE WASTE

 


CHAPTER – 3

OBJECTIVES  AND HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY

 

OBJECTIVES

 

HYPOTHESIS:

H0: Restaurant waste both solid and liquid can be used in s fertile manner.

 

CHAPTER – 4

 

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

METHODOLOGY ADOPTED:- This research is aimed at studying the liquid and solid waste management in a restaurant.

RESEARCH DESIGN:-The research design was used in this study is both ‘Descriptive’ and ‘exploratory’.

DATA COLLECTION METHODS:

The data was collected using both by primary data collection methods as well as secondary sources.

PRIMARY DATA:

SECONDARY DATA:

SAMPLING TECHNIQUE:

The selection of respondents was done on the basis of convenience sampling (Non- Probability).

SAMPLING UNIT: Sampling frame is the representation of the elements of the target population. Total of the 10 customer’s data is taken from 5 restaurants of Mumbai.

Govinda’s Restaurant                          :           10

Cafe Madras                                       :           10

Sea Lounge                                        :            10

Bagdadi Restaurant                            :           10

The Golden Wok                                 :           10

STASTICAL TOOLS:

MS-EXCEL was used to prepare pie- charts and graphs and MS-WORD was used to prepare or write the whole project report.

 

METHOD  USE TO PRESENT DATA:

Data Analysis & Interpretation

 

REPORT WRITING AND PRESENTATION

Report Encompasses – Charts, diagrams


CHAPTER – 5

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

Evaluation of the Study:-

The copy of questionnaire administered is enclosed and the sample size was 50 numerical interpretations are for 100%

Q1. The amount of waste has been steadily increasing due to the increasing human population and urbanization. Waste materials are generated from manufacturing processes, industries and municipal solid wastes?

Criteria Frequency Percentage
Highly Agree 18 36%
Agree 15 30%
Neutral 10 20%
Highly disagree 5 10%
Disagree 2 4%

 Analysis

As per given in the above pie chart 36% of the respondents highly agree with the amount of waste has been steadily increasing due to the increasing human population and urbanization. Waste materials are generated from manufacturing processes, industries and municipal solid wastes. 30% of the respondents agree, 20% of the respondents neutral with the same and 4% of the respondents disagree with the above statement.

Q2. Liquid waste management is consists of wastewater treatment, sewage treatment, and chemical and biochemical processing.

Criteria Frequency Percentage
Highly Agree 17 34%
Agree 14 28%
Neutral 10 20%
Highly disagree 6 12%
Disagree 3 6%

 Analysis

As per given in the above pie chart 34% of the respondents highly agree with the Liquid waste management is consists of wastewater treatment, sewage treatment, and chemical and biochemical processing. 28% of the respondents agree with the same and 12% of the respondents highly disagree, 6% of the respondents disagree with the above statement.

Q3. Waste management practices differ for developed and developing nations, for urban and rural areas, and for residential and industrial, producers.

Criteria Frequency Percentage
Highly Agree 20 40%
Agree 14 28%
Neutral 10 20%
Highly disagree 4 8%
Disagree 2 4%

 Analysis

As per given in the above pie chart 40% of the respondents highly agree with the Waste management practices differ for developed and developing nations, for urban and rural areas, and for residential and industrial, producers.28% of the respondents agree with the same and 4% of the respondents disagree with the above statement.

Q4. The process of extracting resources or value from waste is generally referred to as recycling, meaning to recover or reuse the material. There are a number of different methods by which waste material is recycled: the raw materials may be extracted and reprocessed, or the heat content of the waste may be converted to electricity.

Criteria Frequency Percentage
Highly Agree 17 34%
Agree 15 30%
Neutral 8 16%
Highly disagree 6 12%
Disagree 4 8%

 Analysis

As per given in the above pie chart 34% of the respondents highly agree with the process of extracting resources or value from waste is generally referred to as recycling, meaning to recover or reuse the material. There are a number of different methods by which waste material is recycled: the raw materials may be extracted and reprocessed, or the heat content of the waste may be converted to electricity. 30% of the respondents agree with the same and 8% of the respondents disagree with the above statement.

Q5. Waste management is one of the major environmental concerns in the world. Human activities and changes in lifestyles and consumption patterns have resulted in an increase in solid waste generation rates?

Criteria Frequency Percentage
Highly Agree 20 40%
Agree 16 32%
Neutral 7 14%
Highly disagree 5 10%
Disagree 2 4%

 Analysis

As per given in the above pie chart 40% of the respondents highly agree with the waste management is one of the major environmental concerns in the world. Human activities and changes in lifestyles and consumption patterns have resulted in an increase in solid waste generation rates. 32% of the respondents agree with the same and 4% of the respondents disagree with the above statement.

Q6. Waste management is also carried out to recover resources from it. Waste management can involve solid, liquid, gaseous or radioactive substances, with different methods and fields of expertise for each. Various types of waste can be collected separately?

Criteria Frequency Percentage
Highly Agree 17 34%
Agree 14 28%
Neutral 10 20%
Highly disagree 6 12%
Disagree 3 6%

 Analysis

As per given in the above pie chart 34% of the respondents highly agree with the Waste management is also carried out to recover resources from it. Waste management can involve solid, liquid, gaseous or radioactive substances, with different methods and fields of expertise for each. Various types of waste can be collected separately. 28% of the respondents agree with the same and 6% of the respondents disagree with the above statement.

Q7. The role of sustainable waste management is to reduce the amount of waste that is discharged into the environment by reducing the amount of waste generated. Waste is mostly dumped in the countryside or burned in open fires. The resulting pollutions can cause hygienically and environmentally problems. For improving such situations, concepts have to be designed.

Criteria Frequency Percentage
Highly Agree 18 36%
Agree 14 28%
Neutral 10 20%
Highly disagree 5 10%
Disagree 3 6%

 Analysis

As per given in the above pie chart 36% of the respondents highly agree with the role of sustainable waste management is to reduce the amount of waste that is discharged into the environment by reducing the amount of waste generated. Waste is mostly dumped in the countryside or burned in open fires. The resulting pollutions can cause hygienically and environmentally problems. For improving such situations, concepts have to be designed. 28% of the respondents agree with the same and 10% of the respondents highly disagree, 6% of the respondents disagree with the above statement.

Q8. Wastes polluting the environment and threaten human health requires the public education. Educating personnel will also improve the efficiency of the waste management system and minimize its possible health and environmental risks.

Criteria Frequency Percentage
Highly Agree 21 42%
Agree 14 28%
Neutral 9 18%
Highly disagree 4 8%
Disagree 2 4%

 Analysis

As per given in the above pie chart 42% of the respondents highly agree with the Wastes polluting the environment and threaten human health requires the public education. Educating personnel will also improve the efficiency of the waste management system and minimize its possible health and environmental risks. 28% of the respondents agree with the same and 4% of the respondents disagree with the above statement.

 

Q9. Improper management of wastes can lead to serious health threats as a result of fires, explosions, and contamination of air, soil, and water. Likewise, improper waste management and disposal pose threats to those living in nearby communities and can result in costly cleanups?

Criteria Frequency Percentage
Highly Agree 20 40%
Agree 14 28%
Neutral 10 20%
Highly disagree 4 8%
Disagree 2 4%

 Analysis

As per given in the above pie chart 40% of the respondents highly agree with the Improper management of wastes can lead to serious health threats as a result of fires, explosions, and contamination of air, soil, and water. Likewise, improper waste management and disposal pose threats to those living in nearby communities and can result in costly cleanups.28% of the respondents agree with the same and 4% of the respondents disagree with the above statement

Q10.Waste management is the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal, and monitoring of waste materials. A typical waste management system comprises collection, transportation, pre-treatment, processing, and final abatement of residues. The purpose of waste management is to provide sanitary living conditions to reduce the amount of matter that enters or leaves the society and encourage the reuse of matter within the society.

Criteria Frequency Percentage
Highly Agree 17 34%
Agree 15 30%
Neutral 9 18%
Highly disagree 5 10%
Disagree 4 8%

 Analysis

As per given in the above pie chart 34% of the respondents highly agree with the Waste management is the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal, and monitoring of waste materials. A typical waste management system comprises collection, transportation, pre-treatment, processing, and final abatement of residues. The purpose of waste management is to provide sanitary living conditions to reduce the amount of matter that enters or leaves the society and encourage the reuse of matter within the society.30% of the respondents agree, 18% of the respondents neutral with the same and 8% of the respondents disagree with the above statement.

Q11. A waste management concept including the following goals:

Criteria Frequency Percentage
Reduction of total amount of waste by reduction and recycling of refuse. 30 60%
Recycling and re-introduction of suitable groups

of substances into production cycles

5 10%
Re-introduction of biological waste into the natural cycle.           5 10%
Best-possible reduction of residual waste quantities              7 14%
Flexible concept concerning fluctuations in waste quantities and the composition of domestic waste.               3 6%

 Analysis

As per given in the above pie chart 60% of the respondents think that reduction of total amount of waste by reduction and recycling of refuse is a waste management concept goals. 10% of the respondents think that Re-introduction of biological waste into the natural cycle is a waste management concept goals and 6% of the respondents said that Flexible concept concerning fluctuations in waste quantities and the composition of domestic waste is a waste management concept goals.

Q12. The initial situation of a developing country in the field of waste management differs compared to industrialized countries. The transfer of proven technology from one country to another can be quite inappropriate although technically viable or affordable. Very important is the need to understand the local factors such as waste characteristics and seasonal variations in climate, the social aspects, cultural attitudes towards solid waste and political institutions as well as having an awareness of the more obvious resource limitations which often exist.

Criteria Frequency Percentage
Highly Agree 10 20%
Agree 10 20%
Neutral 10 20%
Highly disagree 10 20%
Disagree 10 20%

 Analysis

As per given in the above pie chart 20% of the respondents highly agree with the initial situation of a developing country in the field of waste management differs compared to industrialized countries. The transfer of proven technology from one country to another can be quite inappropriate although technically viable or affordable. Very important is the need to understand the local factors such as waste characteristics and seasonal variations in climate, the social aspects, cultural attitudes towards solid waste and political institutions as well as having an awareness of the more obvious resource limitations which often exist.. 20% of the respondents agree with the same and 20% of the respondents disagree with the above statement.

 

Q13. Waste and recycling management plans should be developed for any construction project prior to the start of work in order to sustain environmental, economic, and social development principles.

Criteria Frequency Percentage
Highly Agree 14 28%
Agree 6 12%
Neutral 5 10%
Highly disagree 20 40%
Disagree 5 10%

 Analysis

As per given in the above pie chart 28% of the respondents highly agree with  the waste and recycling management plans should be developed for any construction project prior to the start of work in order to sustain environmental, economic, and social development principles.12% of the respondents agree with the same and 10% of the respondents disagree with the above statement.

Q14. Solid wastes comprise garbage, paper, plastics, metals, wood and synthetic materials. All living organisms have to produce some kind of waste and it has to be collected to be taken elsewhere. Many cities and towns deals with solid waste by creating a landfill; some use incinerators to burn the trash.

Criteria Frequency Percentage
Highly Agree 19 38%
Agree 6 12%
Neutral 10 20%
Highly Disagree 5 10%
Disagree 10 20%


Analysis

As per given in the above pie chart 38% of the respondents highly agree with the solid wastes comprise garbage, paper, plastics, metals, wood and synthetic materials. All living organisms have to produce some kind of waste and it has to be collected to be taken elsewhere. Many cities and towns deals with solid waste by creating a landfill; some use incinerators to burn the trash.12% of the respondents agree with the same and 20% of the respondents disagree with the above statement.

Q15. Unsuitable waste management practices result in the loss of resources and energy, which could be recycled and produced from a large part of the solid waste. Solid waste knowledge is hard won and too easily lost?

Criteria Frequency Percentage
Highly Agree 15 30%
Agree 15 30%
Neutral 10 20%
Highly Disagree 5 10%
Disagree 5 10%


Analysis

As per given in the above pie chart 30% of the respondents highly agree with the Unsuitable waste management practices result in the loss of resources and energy, which could be recycled and produced from a large part of the solid waste. Solid waste knowledge is hard won and too easily lost.30% of the respondents agree with the same and 10% of the respondents disagree with the above statement.

 

 

CHAPTER – 6

FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Findings:

  • 36% of the respondents highly agree with the amount of waste has been steadily increasing due to the increasing human population and urbanization. Waste materials are generated from manufacturing processes, industries and municipal solid wastes. 30% of the respondents agree, 20% of the respondents neutral with the same and 4% of the respondents disagree with the above statement.
  • 34% of the respondents highly agree with the Liquid waste management is consists of wastewater treatment, sewage treatment, and chemical and biochemical processing.
  • 40% of the respondents highly agree with the Waste management practices differ for developed and developing nations, for urban and rural areas, and for residential and industrial, producers.28% of the respondents agree with the same and 4% of the respondents disagree with the above statement.
  • 40% of the respondents highly agree with the waste management is one of the major environmental concerns in the world. Human activities and changes in lifestyles and consumption patterns have resulted in an increase in solid waste generation rates. 32% of the respondents agree with the same
  • 34% of the respondents highly agree with the Waste management is also carried out to recover resources from it. Waste management can involve solid, liquid, gaseous or radioactive substances, with different methods and fields of expertise for each. Various types of waste can be collected separately.
  • 36% of the respondents highly agree with the role of sustainable waste management is to reduce the amount of waste that is discharged into the environment by reducing the amount of waste generated. Waste is mostly dumped in the countryside or burned in open fires. The resulting pollutions can cause hygienically and environmentally problems. For improving such situations, concepts have to be designed.
  • 40% of the respondents highly agree with the Improper management of wastes can lead to serious health threats as a result of fires, explosions, and contamination of air, soil, and water. Likewise, improper waste management and disposal pose threats to those living in nearby communities and can result in costly cleanups.28% of the respondents agree with the same and 4% of the respondents disagree with the above statement.

RECOMMENDATIONS:

  1. Considering the very high amount of oil/ grease and TSS present, the wastewater is beyond the treatment capacity of municipal treatment plants; hence it becomes mandatory to have restaurants their own effluent treatment plants with the units.
  2. Environmental pollution takes place due to solid waste. This solid waste could be put to better use than thrown in landfills. Hence, for total waste management in restaurants solid waste management is an integral part. The biogas system by ARTI is a very cheap and effective means for solid waste management in restaurants.
  3. Minimum treatment should be given to the wastewater by setting up ETPs in/near the restaurants for their environmental friendly disposal.


CHAPTER – 7

CONCLUSION

 

CHAPTER – 8

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

No study is complete in itself, however good it may be and every study has some limitations. Some of the limitations which I may face in this study are as follows:

  • The study was restricted to the particular area only.
  • The size of the research may not be substantial and it is limited to a specific area.

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

  • Consulting, S. F. (2013). Restaurant Waste Reduction. Sustainable Foodservice.
  • Karve, D. A. (2012). http://www.artiindia.org/index2.php?option=com_content& do_pdf=1&id=45. Retrieved April 2014, from http://www.arti-india.org/.
  • McIvor, J. (2010). Brave New World – Environmental Issues In Restaurants. Square Meal.
  • Comprehensive Industry Document and Guidelines for Environmental Management in Hotel Industry, (2010) by Central Pollution Control Board, Ministry of Environment & Forests in New Delhi .
  • Sub Committee on Comprehensive Industry Documents Series (COINDS) for Hotel Industry (2013) Issue 2
  • CPHEEO Manual, Central Public Health & Environmental Engineering Organization, Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India
  • Howard S. Peavy, Donald R. Rowe, George Tchobanoglous McGraw-Hill, (1985) Environmental Engineering
  • George Tchobanoglous, Franklin Louis Burton, H. David Stensel McGraw-Hill Education (2004) Wastewater Engineering: Treatment and reuse
  • Environmental challenges of Urban development, World Bank, 2004
  • http://www.firstpost.com/delhi/hauzkhas-village-restaurants-face-shutdown-anenviro-double-standard-1331785.html
  • P U Asnani, Chris Zurbrugg, Improving Municipal Solid Waste Management in India (2008), The World Bank, WahingtonDC
  • American Hotel & Lodging Association (AH&LA). 2014. History of Lodging [WWW Document]. http://www.ahla.com/content.aspx?id¼4072 (accessed 11.03.14.)
  • Nath, A. 2014. Profitability and sustainability from waste management practices in hotels and its impact on environment (Doctor of philosophy), Jaypee institute of information technology
  • Pirani, S. I. and Arafat H. A. 2014. Solid waste management in the hospitality industry: A review. Journal of Environmental Management, 146, 320e336.
  • Singh, N., Cranage, D., and Lee, S. 2014. Green strategies for hotels: Estimation of recycling benefits. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 43, 13-22
  • Curry, R. 2013. The Composition of Waste Disposed of by the UK Hospitality Industry (No. RES093-001). Waste and Resources Action Programme (WRAP), United Kingdom.
  • Goldstein, K.A., Primlani, R.V. 2013. Current trends and opportunities in hotels sus-tainability. In: HVS Global Hospitality Services.
  • Claire Swedberg (4 February 2014).”Air-Trak Brings Visibility to Waste Management”. RFID Journal. Retrieved 1 October 2015.

ANNEXURE

QUESTIONNAIRE

DEAR RESPONDENT,

I, ………………………. a student of PGDFSQM .I am underlying a project named “STUDY ON LIQUID AND SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN A RESTAURANT”. So by filling this questionnaire please help me in completing my research project.

Name                           : ……………………………….

Age                             : ……………………………….

Address                       : ……………………………….

Contact No.                : ……………………………….

Year of Experience     : ……………………………….