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PROJECT REPORT

ON

 ROLE OF NGO’S IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT

 

 

 

UNDER SUPERVISION OF:

………………………

SUBMITTED BY

 

 

NAME:………….

 ENROLLMENT NO………………

 

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for qualifying

POST-GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT (PGDRD)

 

Indira Gandhi National Open University

Maidan Garhi,

New Delhi – 110068

 

 

 Under Supervision of  :                          

 Submitted By:

Name                                       :          

Programme                             :           

Enrollment No.                      :

Study Centre Code               :

Study Centre Name              :

 

 

 

 


CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY

This is to certify that the project titled “ROLE OF NGO’S IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT” is an original work of the Student and is being submitted in partial fulfillment for the award of the “M.A.RD” of INDIRA GANDHI NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITYThis report has not been submitted earlier either to this University or to any other University/Institution for the fulfillment of the requirement of a course of study.

 

 

Signature of Supervisor                                                                Signature of Student                                                     

Place: New Delhi                                                                                Place: New Delhi

Date : __________________                                                            Date : __________________

Name, Designation and Address of the                                              Student Name and Enrollment No.

Supervisor

 

…………………………..                                                                 …..…………………..…                

…………………………..                                                                  …………………………

 

…………………………..                                                                   …………………………

 

…………………………..                                                                   …………….……………


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

With Candor and Pleasure I take opportunity to express my sincere thanks and obligation to my esteemed guide ………………………  It is because of his indispensable and mature guidance and co-operation without which it would not have been possible for me to complete my project

Finally, I gratefully acknowledge the support, encouragement & patience of my family, and as always, nothing in my life would be possible without God, Thank You

 

 

DECLARATION

I hereby declare that this project work titled “ROLE OF NGO’S IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT” is my original work and no part of it has been submitted for any other degree purpose or published in any other from till date.

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

 

CHAPTER CONTENTS PAGE NO
  Acknowledgement
  Declaration
  Title of the project
1 Introduction
2 Review of Literature
3 Objective  of  the study
4 Research Methodology
5 Data Analysis & Interpretation
6 Findings and Recommendation
7. Conclusion
8.

9.

 

10.

Limitation of the Study

 

References

Questionnaire

 

 

 

 

 

                        

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER – 1

INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY

 

THE ROLE OF NGO’S:

Non-governmental organisations originally appeared in the mid nineteenth century. After the Second World War, and with the creation of the United Nations, the need and place for a consultative role for organisations that were neither governments nor member states was recognised. The acceptance of these bodies led to the term ‘Non-governmental organizations’. The Economic and Social Council of the United Nations (ECOSOC) originally defined these bodies as ‘any international body that is not founded by an international treaty’, however the United Nations now describe a Non-Governmental Organisation as a “not-for-profit, voluntary citizen’s group, which is organized on a local, national, or international level to address issues in support of the public good.

 

 

THE ROLE OF NGO’S IN RURAl DEVELOPMENT

 

 

The success of the rural development depends upon the active participation and willing co-operation of the rural people through Self-Help organizations and NGO’s. The various roles of NGOs are described below for better understanding:

  1. Catalyze Rural Population
  2. Build Models and Experiment
  3. Supplement Government Efforts
  4. Organizing Rural Poor
  5. Educate the Rural People
  6. Provide Training
  7. Disseminate Information
  8. Mobilize of Resources
  9. Promote Rural Leadership
  10. Represent the Rural People
  11. Act as Innovators
  12. Ensure People’s Participation
  13. Promote Appropriate Technology
  14. Activate the Rural Delivery System

 


ROLE OF NGO IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT:

 

Alleviation of poverty has persistently been on the agenda of the government. Various programmes with contrasting methodologies have been tried, whopping funds expended, yet the poverty yet the poverty seems indomitable. The Yojana (SGSY) is the latest poverty alleviation programme integrating six erstwhile rural development programmes, and it has been in operation since 1st April 1999

 

WORK OF AN NGO: INTRODUCTION

 

To help poor people exercise their basic rights

Poor people are often denied their most basic rights of safe water, food, education, shelter, healthcare and a life of dignity. Many have little say in the decisions that affect their lives, so generation after generation is condemned to a life of poverty and uncertainty. By focusing on people’s basic rights, NGO’s is able to take a long-term view of rural development.

 

To work in partnership to achieve greater impact

NGO’S ensures that a community’s real needs are met by working in partnership with local organisations. These groups have a deep local knowledge and allow ngo to work more effectively in isolated villages and urban slums whilst strengthening the global antipoverty movement.

 

To promote change internationally

NGO’S advocacy work helps poor people make their voices heard by those who have the power to change things. International campaign teams working on education, food and HIV/AIDS continue to lobby governments, corporations, the media and financial institutions so that they take account of the needs of poor people.

 

To improve gender equity

 

Women bear the brunt of poverty throughout the world, especially in developing countries. Women and girls do not have the same status, power or access to and control over resources as men and boys. NGO’s recognises that inequalities between women and men are fundamental causes of poverty, and works for women and men to have equal status, especially within the areas of education and health.

 

To provide Education in rural area

NGO’s education work focuses on primary education and adult literacy. Reflect is an innovative approach to adult literacy and empowerment, whilst Access provides informal primary education for children who can’t attend school due to the cost, distance or aneed to work or help with household chores. Ngo’s also initiated the Elimu campaign to put pressure on governments to live up to their promises and provide free, quality, primary education to all children. NGO’S Schools and Youth team produces educational materials for use in rural classrooms.

 

Food security and trade rules

Poverty and hunger are closely linked. NGO’S works to improve food supplies and prevent famine by providing seeds, tools, animal feed, fertiliser, loans and training. NGO’S also campaigns for people’s rights to food, and for fairer trade and patent laws that don’t discriminate against poor people.

 

Peace building

In the contemporary armed conflicts of the world, over80% of casualties are civilian. NGO’S is working with communities to develop sustainable local initiatives that build peace and prevent conflict from re-emerging. Thesis done by rebuilding lives and livelihoods; encouraging former soldiers and victims to communicate; identifying problems and resolving issues locally.

 

Emergencies

Overcoming poverty in the long-term is made especially difficult when people are hit by emergencies, and poor people are often the most vulnerable. NGO’S recognises that people’s rights are often denied in emergencies. When an emergency happens, NGO’S works with the most vulnerable communities to assess their needs and provide immediate assistance. They take a long-term approach to help people recover once the immediate needs of an emergency have been addressed. NGO’S also helps people plan how to reduce the risk and impact of any future disasters, and tackles the factors that make certain people more vulnerable to disasters in the first place.

PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS OF INDIAN NGOs

Indian NGOs fall into two broad categories – the “Government-funded” NGOs and the “Multinational NGOs” which receive their funds from foreign sources.


 

Major innovation by development NGOs:

 

 

 


 

THE ANGANWADI WORKERS TRAINING CENTRE:

Anganwadi i is also one kind of NGO, which is play very important role in rural areas for progress. The Anganwadi Programme, started by the Government of India in 1975 as part of the Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS), is a grassroots programme that reaches out to women in rural areas and urban slums, to educate them on matters of basic health and hygiene, nutrition, pre- natal and post-natal maternal and childcare and child rearing. Angan means courtyard in Hindi and it is the heart of family and community life in the villages of India. This is where the Anganwadi workers gather together women of the community to impart information and provide welfare services.

 

MICRO FINANCE AND NGOS:

 

World’s Greatest Ancient Economic and Political Scholar

Non-Governmental Organizations and voluntary action have been part of the historical legacy. In the context of contemporary social empowerment, self realization and self initiative is the base for the formation of self help groups. This is the logic motivated NGOs to form SHGs in rural areas to empower them through developing their inherent skills. Thus, SHG movement among the rural poor in different parts of the country is emerging as a very reliable and efficient mode for technology transfer

  • ACCION International, it is a Latin America’s one of the prime microfinance institution working with the poor. In an early pioneer, ACCION was founded by a law student, Joseph Blatchford, to address poverty in Latin America’s cities.
  • SEWA Bank. In 1972 the Self Employed Women’s Association (SEWA) was registered as a trade union in Gujarat (India), with the main objective of “strengthening its members’ bargaining power to improve income, employment and access to social security.
  • Grameen Bank. In Bangladesh, Professor Muhammad Yunus addressed the banking problem faced by the poor through a programme of action-research. With his graduate students in Chittagong University in 1976, he designed an experimental credit programme to serve them. It spread rapidly to hundreds of villages. Through a special relationship with rural banks, he disbursed and recovered thousands of loans, but the bankers refused to take over the project at the end of the pilot phase.

Following is the list of NGO’s working in specific area:

1 Bhagwan Mahaveer Viklang Sahayata Samiti, Jaipur 

2 Tarun Bharat Sangh
3 Barefoot College 

4 CUTS International (Consumer Unity & Trust Society)

5 Digantar Shiksha Evam Khelkud Samiti 

6 M.R. Morarka-GDC Rural Research Foundation 

 

 

OUR MISSION & OBJECTIVES

 

CHAPTER – 2

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

The literature for review to be collected from secondary sources such as magazines, articles, reports, budgets, news paper etc to highlight the problems and findings of the study done by many research and business professionals to understand the significance of the materials management of the companies. The objectives of the proposed topic have to be formulated based on the previous study by the many research professionals.

 

According to David C Korten in 2002:

Dealing with a number of current development crises will ultimately require facing up to the challenge of democratization. The types of reform indicated involve complex organizational changes that the large official donors have little capability to address. The central leadership role must be assumed by organizations with the potential to serve as catalysts of institutional and policy change. Some NGOs have demonstrated the potential to serve in such roles and many others have the potential—if they chose to develop the necessary technical and managerial capabilities. Throughout this paper, we have observed how NGOs have become “caught in a turbulent ‘development’ policy environment in which their roles are increasingly being redefined” (Ahmad, 2006: 630.) The opportunities and challenges for future development cooperation with government and donor agencies have been described, and weave a complex web of actors, activities, roles and impact.

 

According to Anthony Bebbington in 2003:

Much research on nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) involved in international development has been case-study-based, with questions about the broader geographies of NGO intervention rarely asked. This paper explores the factors that drive such NGO geographies and considers how they relate to the uneven geographies of poverty and livelihood produced under contemporary processes of capitalist expansion and contraction.

According to John D.  in 2009:

NGO’S in rural development in India has not been accompanied by pressure for policy change except in regard to environmental issues.  Often action at the local level has not been linked with lobbying at the macro level.  Recognizing that the state and markets perform better if kept under constant check, developmental volunteers within the organizations will have to serve a sort of “insurgent” function so as to align, anonymously, with grass-root activists, NGOs, and professionals.

According to Andrew N. Parker in 2000:

Although decentralization initiatives have a long history, much more needs to be understood about various components of decentralization before sound advice can be given to policymakers. Special strategies are needed to address the widespread incidence of rural poverty in developing countries, but initiatives aimed at improving the rural standard of living have not consistently reduced poverty.

 

Status and Trends

NGOs have, in particular, played an important role in raising environmental concerns, developing awareness of environmental issues and promoting sustainable development.  The encouragement of public participation in environmental management through legislation in recent years has also enhanced the role of NGOs and Major Groups.  For example, in Thailand, Article 56 of the 1997 Constitution recognizes the rights of people to participate in the protection of natural resources and environment. Similar provisions have been made, for example, in the Philippines, New Zealand (Resource Management Act), Azerbaijan (EPA 1999) and the Australian Landcare and Coast Care programmes.

 

CHAPTER – 3

OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT

 

Fixing the objective is like identifying the star. The objective decides where we want to go, what we want to achieve and what is our goal or destination.

Every study is carried out for the achievement of certain objectives.

 

 

CHAPTER – 4

RESEARCH MEHDOLOGY

 

DATA COLLECTION METHODS:

The data will be collected using both by primary data collection methods as well as secondary sources.

Primary Data: Most of the information will be gathered through primary sources.  The methods that will be used to collect primary data are:

  1. Questionnaire
  2. Interview

 

Secondary Data: Secondary data that will be used are web sites and published materials related to Role of NGO’s in Rural Development relevant information on NGOs’ various Developing programs.

The secondary data will be collected through:

  • Text Books
  • Magazines
  • Journals
  • Websites

 

Sampling Technique:

The technique used for conducting the study will be Convenience Sampling Technique as sample of respondents was chosen according to convenience.

 

Stastical Tools:

The tools used in this study were MS-EXCEL, MS-WORD. MS-EXCEL was used to prepare pie- charts and graphs. MS-WORD was used to prepare or write the whole project report.

 

METHOD USE TO PRESENT DATA:

 

CHAPTER – 5

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

Results and discussion is made on the basis of the structured questionnaire and the responses given by the respondents. The total no of respondents are 75. The analysis and interpretation is as follows:

 

Q1. Do you know that how many NGO’s going on work in Rajasthan?

TABLE – 1

      Criteria Frequency Percentage
Yes 51 68%
No 24 32%


ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION:-

 As per shown in the above graph, 68% of respondent know that how many NGO’s going on work in Rajasthan and  32% of respondent don’t know that how many NGO’s going on work in Rajasthan.

 

Q2. Do you think that Problems faced during the rural Development were fully solved by NGO’s?

 

TABLE – 2

      Criteria Frequency Percentage
Yes 48 64%
No 27 36%


ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION:-

 As per shown in the above graph, 64% of respondent think that Problems faced during the rural Development were fully solved by NGO’s and  36% of respondent don’t feel like that.

Q3. Do you agree that NGO’S process helped to develop rural area to grow?

 TABLE – 3

          Criteria Frequency Percentage
    Strongly agree 15 20%
Agree 33 44%
         Neutral 18 24%
        Disagree 6 8%
   Strongly disagree 3 4%


ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION:-

As per shown in the above pie graph, 20% of respondent strongly agree that NGO’S process helped to develop rural area to grow,44% of respondent agree, 24% of respondent Neutral, 8% of respondent Disagree and only  4% of respondent strongly Disagree.

Q4. Do you feel that Steps taken to sustain the motivation attained through NGO’s were beneficial to rural development?

TABLE – 4

      Criteria Frequency Percentage
Yes 57 76%
No 18 24%


ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION:-

 As per shown in the above graph, 76% of respondent feel that Steps taken to sustain the motivation attained through NGO’s were beneficial to rural development and  24% of respondent don’t feel like that.


Q5. Do you feel that NGO’s give proper help to provide micro finance to rural areas?

TABLE – 5

      Criteria Frequency Percentage
Yes 66 88%
No 9 12%

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION:-

As per shown in the above graph, 88% of respondent feel that NGO’s give proper help to provide micro finance to rural areas and  24% of respondent don’t feel that NGO’s give proper help to provide micro finance to rural areas?

Q6. Do you think that NGO’s given to help good education system in rural areas?

TABLE – 6

      Criteria Frequency Percentage
Yes 69 92%
No 6 8%


ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION:-

As per shown in the above graph, 92% of respondent think that NGO’s given to help good education system in rural areas and  8% of respondent don’t think that NGO’s given to help good education system in rural areas.

Q7. Do you feel that NGO’s work on good health care programs in rural areas?

TABLE – 7

      Criteria Frequency Percentage
Yes 63 84%
No 12 16%


ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION:-

As per shown in the above graph, 84% of respondent feel that NGO’s work on good health care programs in rural areas and  16% of respondent don’t feel like that.

Q8. Do you feel that NGO’s has provided good women education and programs for progress in Rajasthan?

TABLE – 8

      Criteria Frequency Percentage
Yes 60 80%
No 15 20%

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION:-

As per shown in the above graph, 80% of respondent feel that NGO’s has provided good women education and programs for progress in Rajasthan and  20% of respondent don’t feel like that.

Q9. NGO’s done drastic work in rural Development, do you agree that statement?

TABLE – 9

      Criteria Frequency Percentage
Yes 57 76%
No 18 24%

 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION:-

As per shown in the above graph, 76% of respondent feel NGO’s done drastic work in rural Development, do you agree that statement and  24% of respondent don’t feel like that.

Q10. NGO’s doing many literacy programs among different rural areas development. Do you agree with it?

TABLE – 10

          Criteria Frequency Percentage
    Strongly agree 18 24%
Agree 39 52%
         Neutral 15 20%
        Disagree 3 4%
   Strongly disagree 0 0%

 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION:-

As per shown in the above pie graph, 24% of respondent strongly agree that NGO’s doing many literacy programs among different rural areas development, 52% of respondent agree, 20% of respondent Neutral, 4% of respondent Disagree.

Q11. Do you attend any training related to human rights which provide by NGO’s?

TABLE – 11

      Criteria Frequency Percentage
Yes 48 64%
No 27 36%

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION:-

As per shown in the above graph, 64% of respondent said they are attending training related to human rights which provide by NGO’s and  36% of respondent don’t do like that.

Q12. Do you join any NGO?

TABLE – 12

      Criteria Frequency Percentage
Yes 45 60%
No 30 40%


ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION:-

As per shown in the above graph, 60% of respondent said yes and 40% of respondent said they are not joining any NGO.

Q13. Do you feel that NGO’s has good impact on rural areas and their Development?

TABLE – 13

      Criteria Frequency Percentage
Yes 54 72%
No 21 28%

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION:-

As per shown in the above graph, 72% of respondent feel that NGO’s has good impact on rural areas and their Development and 28% of respondent don’t feel like that.

Q14. Do you feel that NGO’s give to opportunity of progress to rural areas?

TABLE – 14

      Criteria Frequency Percentage
Yes 51 68%
No 24 32%

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION:-

As per shown in the above graph, 68% of respondent feel that  NGO’s give to opportunity of progress to rural areas and 32% of respondent don’t feel like that.

 

Q15. Do you know about any NGO which is working in your district?

TABLE – 15

      Criteria Frequency Percentage
Yes 48 64%
No 27 36%

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION:-

As per shown in the above graph, 64% of respondent know about any NGO which is working in their district and 36% of respondent don’t know any NGO’s.

Q16. Do you know that which Target Groups were most taking care by NGO in Rajasthan?

TABLE – 16

      Criteria Frequency Percentage
Women and children and youths 39 52%
Elders and senior citizen 18 24%
Destitute women and children 15 20%
Dalit and landless laborers 3 4%

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION:-

As per shown in the above pie graph, 52% of respondent said Women and children and youths,  24% of respondent said Elders and senior citizen, ,  20% of respondent said Destitute women and children  and other said Dalit and landless laborers .

 

CHAPTER – 6

 

FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATION

The findings of the study of Role of NGO’s in Rural Development”.

  1. As per the outcome of the study, 68% of respondent know that how many NGO’s going on work in Rajasthan and 32% of respondent don’t know that how many NGO’s going on work in Rajasthan.
  1. From the outcome of the study it is evident that, 64% of respondent think that Problems faced during the rural Development were fully solved by NGO’s and 36% of respondent don’t feel like that.
  1. As per the outcome 20% of respondent strongly agree that NGO’S process helped to develop rural area to grow,44% of respondent agree, 24% of respondent Neutral, 8% of respondent Disagree and only 4% of respondent strongly Disagree.
  1. From the outcome of the study it is evident that 76% of respondent feel that Steps taken to sustain the motivation attained through NGO’s were beneficial to rural development and 24% of respondent don’t feel like that.
  1. As per the outcome of the study 88% of respondent feel that NGO’s give proper help to provide micro finance to rural areas and 24% of respondent don’t feel that NGO’s give proper help to provide micro finance to rural areas.
  2. Finding that 92% of respondent think that NGO’s given to help good education system in rural areas and 8% of respondent don’t think that NGO’s given to help good education system in rural areas.
  1. 84% of respondent feel that NGO’s work on good health care programs in rural areas and 16% of respondent don’t feel like that.

 

RECOMMENDATION OF THE STUDY:

The following recommendations are presented based on the present study on hand;

  • The impressive methods employed by the NGOs can be used elsewhere while they initiate Rural Development process instead of experimenting new methods
  • People already involved in the process of Social Mobilization, such as, SHG’s supervisor, administrators, and officials can make different in the process of NGO’S by their direct experiences.

 

CHAPTER – 7

CONCLUSION

Role of NGO’S in Rural Development is very vast. By scanning the entire responses of objectively conducted study, it is pertinent to draw a conclusion that the NGO’s under study have taken enormous efforts and used various methods in Rural Development in turn, to implement and other various development schemes. It is evident that public concern for the state of the environment in the Rajasthan is increasing.  This has been reflected not only in the increase   in the number of public   interest and community groups   involved  in  environmental activities, but also in the scope and diversity of such activities.  It was reported that there were about 1 500 NGOs represented at the Earth Summit in 1992; in recent years the number of active groups has increased to nearly 10 000.  In addition, the increase in the range of their activities reflects not only the increasing professionalism with which major groups are fulfilling their obligations and responsibilities, but the greater recognition and credibility accorded to them by national governments, regional and international organizations. A number of public interest groups have also strengthened their participation at grassroots and community levels, and have played a vital role, not only in awareness-raising and campaigning, but also in education, training and capacity-building.


CHAPTER – 8

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

No study is complete in itself, however good it may be and every study has some limitations. Some of the limitations which I had confronted are as follows:

  • The study was restricted to the among Role of NGOs’ in Rural Development only.
  • This is not an inclusive survey due to time and resource constraint.
  • There may be limitation on part of the respondents as they sometimes shirked to give the related information due to their busy schedules.

 


APPENDIX

 REFERENCES

  1. Vasudeva Rao, D. (2000). “Emerging Leadership of Women in Institutions of Local Governance: A Study in Andhra Pradesh”, Social Action, Vol.53 April-June Anand, V.K. (2001), “Avenue for Sustainable Empowerment of Rural Women”, Social Welfare, Vol.48, No.4, July, Pp.24-26
  2. Deepti, Agarwar. (2001). “Empowerment of Rural Women in India” , Social Welfare, vol.48, No.4, July, Pp. 3-4 Devasia, Leelamma. (2001). “Rural Women’s Empowerment: A Grass Root Level Experiment”. Social Welfare, Vol.48, No.4, July, Pp. 5-10.
  3. Gurumoorthy, T. R. (2000). “Self Help Groups Empower Rural Women”, Kurushetra, Vol.48, No.5, February, p. 36-39.
  4. Narasimhan, Sakuntala. (1999). “Empowering Women: An alternative Strategies from Rural India” , New Delhi, Sage Publications.
  5. Rao, Vasudeva D. and A.P. Rao. (2000) “Swaskti Bank – Of the community, By the Community, For the Community”, Rural Welfare, August,Pp.3-8
  6. Sinha, Kalpana (ed). (2000 Empowerment of Women in south Asia, AMDISA and SAARC. Hyderabad. Sivasubramanian, M.N. (1999). “Credit Based Poverty Alleviatin Programme: Innovative Approach”, Kurushetra, Vol.48, No.2, November, Pp. 37-41.
  7. Sundari S. and N. Geeta. 2000. “Povert, Credit and Micro Enterprises: A Gender Study, Kurushetra, Vol.49, No.2, November, Pp.26-35 Vijaya Kumar, S. 2002. Devadasis – Social Problems in India – Series 1, National Commission for Women, Hyderabad: Council for Social Development (memio)
  8. Laxmi R. Kulshrestha , et.al. 2002. “ NGO in micro finance Partners in Rural Development” Kuruksheta, February issues.
  9. Binay Kumar Sahay, 2002 “Empowering Community for Sustainable Livelihood through Jankar System” Kuruksheta, February issues.
  10. Kurukshetra, November 2004 “Rajive Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission Committed to providing Safe Drinking Water”.
  11. Aditya Keshari Mishra, 2004. “Social Capital- alternative model for viable development.” Kurukshetra, Novermber 2004.
  12. Michael Woolcock, 1998 “Social Capital and Development: Toward a Theoretical Synthesis and policy framework (Theory and Society)” 1998.
  13. Amal Mandal, (2005). “Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana and Self Help Group : as assessment.” Kurukshetra, January 2005.
  14. Ramanuja Rao et.al, (2005). “Gangadevipally Village- All round participation in Village Administration”. Kurukshetra, January 2005.
  15. Radhakrishna Rao, (2005) “Women’s Groups Herald a Wind Change in Rural Uttaranchal” Kurukshetra, January 2005

 

QUESTIONNAIRE

Dear Respondent,

I am ……………………, is a student of M.A.R.D as a part of my curriculum; I am to take a research Project on “ROLE OF NGO’S IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT”. To enable to undertake above mentioned study, I request you to give your fair views. Your insights and perspective are important and valuable for my research.

Policy on Confidentiality: Please feel free to give your honest responses. The confidentiality of the information provided by the respondent is completely assured.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Personal profile:

 

  1. Occupation of the respondent.

 

Business man                                                 Serviceman

Professional                                                    Other

 

  1. Age of the respondents.

 

Below 25 year                                                25-40year

40-50year                                                       50-60year

Above 60year

 

  1. Monthly income of the respondent.

 

Below Rs10000                                             Rs10000-20000

Rs25000-40000                                              Rs40000-50000

Above Rs50000

 

Name :-_______________________________

Contact No.:-_______________________

 

 

***************************** THANK YOU*****************************