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PROJECT REPORT

ON

“STUDY ON THE ORIGIN, LIFESTYLE AND CULTURE OF NORTH-EAST INDIAN TRIBES”

 

 

SUBMITTED BY

NAME: …………………….

ENROLLMENT NO.: ……………………………

                                                                                   

 UNDER SUPERVISION OF

 

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for qualifying

PG Diploma in Folklore and Culture Studies

 

INDIRA GANDHI NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY

Maidan Garhi,

New Delhi – 110068

SEPTEMBER, 2017

CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY

 

This is to certify that the Project Report titled “STUDY ON THE ORIGIN, LIFESTYLE AND CULTURE OF NORTH-EAST INDIAN TRIBES” submitted to Indira Gandhi National Open University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of PG DIPLOMA IN FOLKLORE AND CULTURE STUDIES” of INDIRA GANDHI NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY. It is an original work carried out by ………………………

The matter embodied in this Project is a genuine work done by the student and has not been submitted whether to this University or to any other University/ Institute for the fulfillment of the requirement of any course of study.

 

Signature of the Student                                                            Signature of the Supervisor

 

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

With Candor and Pleasure I take opportunity to express my sincere thanks and obligation to my esteemed guide ……………….. (Asstt. Prof./HOD Bengali  Dept. of College, Tripura) &……………… (Programme Executive, All India Radio:Agartala). It is because of his able and mature guidance and co-operation without which it would not have been possible for me to complete my project.

It is my pleasant duty to thank all the staff member of the computer center who never hesitated me from time during the project.

Finally, I gratefully acknowledge the support, encouragement & patience of my family, and as always, nothing in my life would be possible without God, Thank You!

 

 

NAME:………………………….

ENROLLMENT NO.: …………………….

 

DECLARATION

I hereby declare that this project work titled “STUDY ON THE ORIGIN, LIFESTYLE AND CULTURE OF NORTH-EAST INDIAN TRIBES” is my original work and no part of it has been submitted for any other degree purpose or published in any other from till date.

NAME:………………………

ENROLLMENT NO.: ………………..

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 CHAPTER CONTENTS PAGE NO
  Certificate  
  Acknowledgement  
  Declaration  
1. Introduction to the Study  
2. Objectives of the Study  
3. Review of Literature  
4. Research Methodology  
5. Data Analysis & Interpretation  
6. Findings  
7. Conclusions  
8. Limitations of the Study  
 

 

References

Appendix

Questionnaire

 

 

 

 

 

TITLE OF THE PROJECT

“STUDY ON THE ORIGIN, LIFESTYLE AND CULTURE OF NORTH-EAST INDIAN TRIBES”

 

 

 

CHAPTER – 1

INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY

 

tribe is viewed, developmentally or historically, as a social group existing before the development of, or outside of, states. A tribe is a group of distinct people, dependent on their land for their livelihood, who are largely self-sufficient, and not integrated into the national society. It is perhaps the term most readily understood and used by the general public. Stephen Corry defines tribal people as those who “…have followed ways of life for many generations that are largely self-sufficient, and are clearly different from the mainstream and dominant society.” This definition, however, would not apply to countries in the Middle East such as Iraq, where the entire population is a member of one tribe or another, and tribalism itself is dominant and mainstrea

 

Etymology

The English word tribe occurs in 12th-century Middle English-literature as referring to one of the twelve tribes of Israel. The word is from Old French tribu, in turn from Latin tribus, referring to the original tripartite ethnic division of the Ancient Roman state: Ramnes (Ramnenses), Tities (Titienses), and Luceres, corresponding, according to Marcus Terentius Varro, to the Latins, Sabines, and Etruscans, respectively. The Ramnes were named after Romulus, leader of the Latins, Tities after Titus Tatius, leader of the Sabines, and Luceres after Lucumo, leader of an Etruscan army that had assisted the Latins. According to Livy, the three “tribes” were squadrons of knights, rather than ethnic divisions. The term’s ultimate etymology is uncertain, perhaps from the Proto-Indo-European roots tri- (“three”) and bhew (“to be”). Gregory Nagy, in Greek Mythology and Poetics, says, citing the linguist Émile Benveniste in his Origines de la formation des noms en indo-européen, that the Umbrian “trifu” (tribus) is apparently derived from a combination of where the second element is cognate with the ‘phu-‘ of Greek phule, and that this subdivided the Greek polis into three phulai.

In 242–240 BC, the Tribal Assembly (comitia tributa) in the Roman Republic included 35 tribes (four “urban tribes” and 31 “rural tribes”). The Latin word as used in the Bible translates as Greek phyle: “race, tribe, clan”, and ultimately the Hebrew, meaning or “sceptre”. In the historical sense, “tribe”, “race” and “clan” can be used interchangeably.

 

Tribes and Nations

Considerable debate has accompanied efforts to define and characterize tribes. Scholars perceive differences between pre-state tribes and contemporary tribes; there is also general controversy over cultural evolution and colonialism. In the popular imagination, tribes reflect a way of life that predates, and is more natural than that in modern states. Tribes also privilege primordial social ties, are clearly bounded, homogeneous, parochial, and stable. Tribes are an organization among families (including clans and lineages), which generates a social and ideological basis for solidarity that is in some way more limited than that of an “ethnic group” or of a “nation”. Anthropological and ethno historical research has challenged all of these notions.

 

Anthropologist Elman Service presented a system of classification for societies in all human cultures, based on the evolution of social inequality and the role of the state. This system of classification contains four categories:

  1. Hunter-gathererbands that are generally egalitarian
  2. Tribal societies with some limited instances of social rankand prestige
  3. Stratifiedtribal societies led by chieftains (see Chiefdom)
  4. Civilizations, with complex social hierarchies and organized, institutional governments

In his 1975 study, The Notion of the Tribe, anthropologist Morton H. Fried provided numerous examples of tribes that encompassed members who spoke different languages and practiced different rituals, or who shared languages and rituals with members of other tribes. Similarly, he provided examples of tribes in which people followed different political leaders, or followed the same leaders as members of other tribes. He concluded that tribes in general are characterized by fluid boundaries and heterogeneity, are not parochial, and are dynamic.

 

Initiation rituals among boys from a tribe of the Yao people in Malawi

Fried proposed that most contemporary tribes do not have their origin in pre-state tribes, but rather in pre-state bands. Such “secondary” tribes, he suggested, developed as modern products of state expansion. Bands comprise small, mobile, and fluid social formations with weak leadership. They do not generate surpluses, pay no taxes, and support no standing army. Fried argued that secondary tribes develop in one of two ways. First, states could set them up as means to extend administrative and economic influence in their hinterland, where direct political control costs too much. States would encourage (or require) people on their frontiers to form more clearly bounded and centralized polities, because such polities could begin producing surpluses and taxes, and would have a leadership responsive to the needs of neighboring states (the so-called “scheduled” tribes of the United States or of British India provide good examples of this). Second, bands could form “secondary” tribes as a means to defend against state expansion. Members of bands would form more clearly bounded and centralized polities, because such polities could begin producing surpluses that could support a standing army that could fight against states, and they would have a leadership that could co-ordinate economic production and military activities.

 

Archaeologists continue to explore the development of pre-state tribes. Current research suggests that tribal structures constituted one type of adaptation to situations providing plentiful yet unpredictable resources. Such structures proved flexible enough to coordinate production and distribution of food in times of scarcity, without limiting or constraining people during times of surplus.

 

The following features of tribes in Indian context:

  • A tribe should have least functional interdependence within the community.
  • It should be economically backward (i.e. primitive means of exploiting natural resources, tribal economy should be at an underdeveloped stage and it should have multifarious economic pursuits).
  • There should be a comparative geographical isolation of its people.
  • They should have a common dialect.
  • Tribes should be politically organized and community panchayat should be influential.
  • A tribe should have customary laws.

 

Bodos People

 

 

 

Religion

Bodos traditionally practise Bathouism, which is the worshiping of forefathers, known as Obonglaoree. The shijou plant (Euphorbia genus) is taken as the symbol of Bathou and worshiped. It is also claimed as the supreme god. In Bodo language, Ba means five and thou means deep. As Bodos believe in five mighty elements of God, which are Land, Water, Air, Fire and Sky, five has become a significant number in the Bathou religion.

The Shijou tree is encircled with eighteen pairs of designed bamboo sticks and five pairs of ring of bamboo. In front of Shijou within encircled bamboo ring there is a ‘Dove Heart’.

 

 

Festival of Bodo Tribes

This festival is commonly celebrated by the tribe of ‘Boro Kacharis’ of Assam and it is the famous festival of the Boros.It is the most cherished festival of the Bodo tribe. The Bodos also celebrate it as a springtime festival at the advent of the New Year.

Food Habits of the Bodo Tribes

Food habit of human being depends on food commodities available in the area. Food commodities encourage Cuisine, preservation, presentation and traditional knowledge on that. Cultural discourses of a particular community relates on the food habit they practices in the area. It has sole relation with religion and custom of a community. Bodo food habit is peculiar to other community having different type of traditional knowledge. The paper tries to approach the traditional technological knowledge in regards of food preparation and preservation of the particular community the Bodos.


This is a brief overview of the traditional food habits of the Bodos North East India. Food is the culture and the culture is the identity of any communities. The traditional system of fooding, preparing, rituals, taboos or health care varies community wise. But the significance of the word TRADITION is decreasing day by day, in short the word tradition itself changing traditionally due to the global impact of globalization and as well as due to socio-economic development of the society.

 

Bodo Culture

The Bodo culture is the culture of the Bodo people of Assam in India, influenced by the land in which they live. For a long time, Bodos have been farmers, with a strong tradition of fishing, keeping poultry, piggery, rice and jute cultivation, and betel nut plantation. The Bodos also cultivate mustard and corn. They make their own traditional attire. Bodo people are mainly into Bathouism, a part of folk Hinduism. In recent decades, they have been influenced by social reforms under Brahma Dharma, Assamese Sarania and the spread of Christianity. However, the spread of Christianity in recent years has created concerns among conservative Bodos, as they fear it may lead to the loss of their ancestral culture, tradition and identity. They are deeply independent and proud of their Bodo identity, which has given rise to political assertion in recent times. The Bodo linguistic ethnic group arrived the earliest and settled in the region, and have contributed to the cultural traditions of the Assamese and others in the north east of India.

 

 

Bodo Attire

Dresses and ornaments of the Bodos are the symbol of their traditional art and culture. Most of the tribes belonging to the Mongolian races in the North Eastern Region of India deserve the same character of dresses and ornaments. Their arts of such dresses and ornaments are the intrinsic reflections of the nature within which they are shaped and moulded. Since ancient time, the indigenous people like Bodos were accustomed with the production of clothes from the tread of Eri and Muga. The Eri cloth is of dub colour and is durable. It is light but worm, in ordinary cold season, wrap of the Assamese (referring to the people of ancient Assam including all tribes) is generally made of this cloth. Bodo women are expert in rearing the “ Endi Emphou ” ( Eri worm ) and “ Muga latha ” ( Muga worm ) and find out treads from them. They weave different kind of clothes like “ Dokhna “ ( Women’s dress for covering the whole body ), “ Jwmgra “ ( Chadar or orna or scarf of woman ), Gamsha ( Clothe for covering the lower part of the body by man and sometimes used in bath ), “ Phali “ or “ Rumal ” ( Handkerchief ), “ Hishima “ ( Big and wide cloth used as rugs during the winter season ) etc. out of the treads of Eri and Muga. Traditionally Bodo manfolk used to wear male garment called “ Gamsha “ ( Gamosha in Assamese ) to cover the body from waist down to the knee. Previously Bodo old man used to wear wooden footwear known as “ Khorom “ ( Karam in Assamese ). There was no use of shirt in the past days. They only used a type of cloth known as “Jwmgra “made of Eri trade and a small cloth on the shoulder during the winter and summer season respectively. But now-a-days they put on modern dresses available in the market.

 

The ornaments of the nose are “ Nakhaphul ” ( A hole is made on the skin of upper side of the nose for holding the Nakhaphul ), Nolot ( Holding from the middle of two nostrils ), Buluki ( Nose pendent ) etc.

 

Bodo women wear ornaments in the neck also. The popular ornaments are :-

  1. Chandra Har ( A heavy neckless ).
  2. Bisa Har ( A neckless ).
  3. Thanka Siri ( A roundneck ornament ).
  4. Jibou Zinziri ( A snake like chain )

Music and Dance

The Bagurumba

The Bodos traditionally dance Bagurumba. It is practiced and performed usually by young village girls and also evident in schools and colleges dominated by the Boro community.

Oma Bedor: Most Bodo people like Oma (Pork). It is fried, roasted, or stewed. The meat is often smoked in the sun for several days.

 

North-East Indian Tribes

North East India is indeed a paradise unexplored and one of the best destination for nature lovers, trekkers and wildlife enthusiasts. North East India includes 7 contiguous states Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura, Hence also known as Seven Sister States of India. The North Eastern region also host one brother called Sikkim and some parts of Bengal as Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri, and Koch Bihar. It is one of the most treasured and Eco-friendly area in India with vast natural resources and a cauldron of different people and cultures.

 Culture

The unexplored paradise of India is well known for its distinct culture and traditional lifestyle. North east region offers a mixed culture of Hindu, Christianity, Muslim and Buddhism, Buddhist Cultural is occupies an important place and large number of ethnic groups as compare to other religions. Every tribal group of these states has its own unique tribal culture, tribal folk dance and food and crafts.

People

North-East Indian people offer a colorful reflection of their land and traditional lifestyle. The Mongoloid faced people of this region’s are very distinctive in characteristics of dress, customs and language. Major tribes of hills like Khasi, Garo and Jaintia are the people with very rich in culture and traditions and tribal people of valley’s have religious beliefs, music, dance and arts.

Lifestyle

Lifestyle of North Eastern Indian states are vary from one place to other, people of states are divided into tribes and sub-tribes. Hill region tribes live a simple lifestyle as they inhabit in  high mountains so hunting and fishing are the prime occupations. Agriculture and weaving are the two major occupations of the people, Tea farming in Assam is one of the main source of income along with traditional handicrafts. Tea gardens of Assam are world famous for the aroma and rich flavor and taste.

Cuisines

Cuisines of North East India offers dishes that reflect the culture and lifestyle of the region. Staple food and cuisine of the states are rice along with dry fish, spicy meat and lots of green vegetables. Chicken, Mutton, Duck, Pigeon are some most popular non-veg dishes from north east along with a variety of rice beer. The unique cuisine of seven states of the north east India are Jadoh,Momos, Aakhol Ghor, Tung-rymbai,and pickled bamboo shoots.

Festivals and Fairs

Fair and Festivals are the integral part of tribes along with traditional dance and folk music. There are numbers of festivals celebrated by various tribes of different states throughout the year. Festival season is the best time to know the culture and traditional costumes of a paradise unexplored called North East India. The major festivals of northeast India are Bihu,Brahmaputra Festival of Assam, Hornbill and Sekrenyi festival of Nagaland,Torgya Monastery Festival Arunachal Pradesh,Shillong Autumn Festival, Chapchar Kut from Manipur,Ningol Chakouba Festival Manipur and Kharchi Puja from Tripura.

Music and Dance

These seven states are not only rich in terms of landscape, natural beauty and flora and fauna but also in Music and Dance. North east India not only offers a completely different world of traditional music and folk dance but also emerged as one of the prime industry of rock music. While Shillong is music capital of India and Guwahati is one of the major destinations for live rock band performances. Music and dance festivals like Hornbill National Rock Contest and folk music and tribal dance festivals are organized across the states. Tribes of North East India use some musical instruments like Tamak folk drum,flute, khamb and lambang which are made of bamboo.

Art and Craft

North East India is well famous for its unique culture, handicrafts, scenic beauty and martial arts. People of these state’s got great skills in art, weaving, The sister states got a rich variety and skill on making of wood-carving, Cane Crafts,jewellery and bamboo stick work. Arts and Craft culture is one of the very old traditions along with the making of musical instruments, Carpet and silk weaving. Every tribe excels in craftsmanship and offers a wide variety of traditional crafts and arts.

Mountains and Hills

The Northeast region Physical geography falls in the category of Eastern Himalayas ranges and Patkai-Naga Hills along with mighty Brahmaputra Barak river systems and Valley Plains. The valley of Meghalaya is surrounded by Garo, Khasi and Jaintia Hills from all sides and home to some of the largest waterfalls in India. The route of mountains and hill of north east is best for Mountaineering and adventures sports like hiking, mountain climbing and trekking. Magnificent hill stations of north east India are one of the major tourist destinations.

Natural Beauty

The seven sister states are a slice of paradise on earth, this place is blessed with natural beauty and colorful flora and fauna. The picturesque location of meandering water bodies, astonishing waterfalls, lush green forest and Blue Mountains ranges along with pleasant weather offers a beautiful view of in the country. Brahmaputra river area is covered with mountain peak, lush evergreen forests and grasslands, which provide a picturesque view of the amazing Brahmaputra Green Valleys. North Eastern region offers one of the most beautiful Eco-Tourism destinations in India.

Water Bodies

The region is known for highest annual rainfall is India and Mawsynram and Cherrapunji are the two wettest places on earth with an annual rainfall of 11872 millimeters. North East India’s river systems, lakes and ponds are the life line of people and one the main source of income. Brahmaputra one of the biggest river in India flows through the North east region and its numerous tributaries flowing through the different states. Wettest area is home to big waterfalls and beautiful lakes such as Tsomgo Lake, the frozen lake of India, Chandubi Lake,Umiam Lake,Kamalasagarand Loktak lake, the largest fresh water lake in India. Waterfalls includes Langshiang, Nohkalikai, Nohsngithiang and Vantawng,Langshiang is one of the highest waterfalls in India.

Deep Forest

The dense semi-evergreen forest reserves of North East India are inhabited by many tribes as well as by wild species of animals. There are 51 types of forest found in this region classified into six major types- tropical moist deciduous forests, tropical semi evergreen forests, tropical wet evergreen forests, subtropical forests, temperate forests and alpine forests. The mountain terrain and slopes of region is covered by natural forest vegetation like Zizypphus jujuba, Bombax ceiba, Sterculia villosa, Dalbergia sisoo,and other non-aquatic grassland species.The grasslands and rain forests of regions supports diverse flora and fauna and several crop species.

Wildlife of North East

The least explored region host one of the highly diversified wildlife areas in the country and offers wide varieties of flora and fauna. The dense forest of region is home to some of the most beautiful but endangered and rare species of wild animals and birds. 13 major national parks and 30 wildlife sanctuaries are the treasure and heritage of the states. These Biodivers wild parks are provide shelter to rare species as many as 55 mammals, 50 reptiles, 380 birds and amphibians. Also home to hornbill, Great Indian One-horned Rhinoceros, Indian elephant, red panda, Indian civet, Indian, and big feline species such as Clouded Leopard, Snow Leopard, Royal Bengal Tiger, Indian leopard and Lesser cats.

 

Tribal Tour

These seven states offers a unique experience to known tribal culture and ethnic diversities of tribal world in India. The North-east India is home to 220 ethnic groups and equal number of dialects makes it a hugely diverse region of the country. Every tribes of each states have its own culture, languages, dress, custom and tradition and festivals to celebrate. The hill station is predominantly inhabited by tribal people, few major tribes are Bishnupriya Manipuri, Tripuri, Adivasi,Assamese, Bhutia, Bodo, Garo, Khasi, Mizo, Naga,Tamang and Tripuri.

History

 

 

CHAPTER – 2

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

 

 

CHAPTER – 3

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

 

The Bodos have their own language, culture and traditions distinct from other tribes of North-East India. The Bodos became gradually conscious of their ethnic identity. They started articulating their identity to gain political power and overcome their socio-economic backwardness.

Bodo Tribe is known to be the earliest immigrants in Assam. This ethnic community is mainly concentrated in Brahmaputra valleys. It is the largest minority group of the state. It is believed that this tribe arrived in Assam from the Tibet through Bhutan passes. As, the primitive settlers of Assam valley, the bodo community is considered to be the most traditionally and culturally rich community of the state.

 

Ethnic Background

The Bodo group includes the most numerous tribes, occupying not only the hills parts but also the valley parts from Dhubri to Sadiya. Even before the advent of Ahoms the Kachari and Chutiya kingdoms were established by them. Kachari6′ is a generic term for a number of groups speaking a more or less common dialect or language and claiming a common mythical ancestry and others regarded the Kachari as aborigines, or the earliest known inhabitants of the Brahmaputra valley i.e, the whole of modern Assarn, North Bengal and parts of Bangladesh. They ruled the whole of Assam up to the 12th century A.D. and moved to the western part of the Brahmaputra valley, North Cachar hills and the plains of Cachar in the 16th~ century A.D. to evade the Ahom onslaught. In the course of time they dispersed over a larger area, and some of their groups became isolated from others.

Bodo Concentration in the North-East:

The Bodos are found in almost all the areas of Assam in various configurations though they came from Tibet and settled in the lower parts of Bhutan, later got scattered to the different parts of North-East India diachronically. They moved west and reached Cooch Behar, Rangpur, and Dinajpur districts of North Bengal and even North Bihar. Some sections of the Bodos moved southwards and settled in the Garo hills, Tripura, and Sylhet and Mymensing districts of the present Bangladesh.

 

 

CHAPTER– 4

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

 

METHODOLOGY ADOPTED:- This research is aimed at studying on the origin, lifestyle and culture of north-east Indian tribes.

 

RESEARCH DESIGN:-The research design was used in this study is both ‘Descriptive’ and ‘exploratory’.

 

DATA COLLECTION METHODS:

The data was collected using both by primary data collection methods as well as secondary sources.

PRIMARY DATA: Most of the information was gathered through primary sources’. The methods that were used to collect primary data are:

  1. Questionnaire
  2. Interview

SECONDARY DATA:

The secondary data was collected through:

  1. Text Book
  2. Magazines
  3. Journals
  4. Internet

 

SAMPLE SIZE:  50

SAMPLING TECHNIQUE:

The selection of respondents was done on the basis of convenience sampling (Non- Probability).

STASTICAL TOOLS:

MS-EXCEL was used to prepare pie- charts and graphs and MS-WORD was used to prepare or write the whole project report.

METHOD  USE TO PRESENT DATA:

Data Analysis & Interpretation – Classification & tabulation transforms the raw data was collected through questionnaire in to useful information by organizing and compiling the bits of data contained in each questionnaire i.e., observation and responses are converted in to understandable and orderly statistics are used to organize and analyze the data:

  • Simple tabulation of data using tally marks.
  • Calculating the percentage of the responses.
  • Formula used = (no. of responses / total responses) * 100

 

REPORT WRITING AND PRESENTATION

 

CHAPTER – 5

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

Evaluation of the Study:-

A detailed analysis of the study is necessary and is to be considered in order to compare the actual theory with that practical the variants of which may form the basis for improvements. Keeping this point in view and to fulfill the evaluation variants of which may form the basis for objectives of the studies an attempt has been made to segment the various respondents on the basis of some aspects collected from them through questionnaire. There are depicted through tables and graphs.

 

Q1. In order to understand the social processes functioning in a society it is important to know the socio-cultural milieu of the society in which they are rooted.

Criteria Frequency Percentage
Highly Agree 18 36%
Agree 15 30%
Neutral 10 20%
Disagree 5 10%
Highly disagree 2 4%

ANALYSIS:

As per shown in the above pie graph, 36% of the respondents are highly agree with the social processes functioning in a society it is important to know the socio-cultural milieu of the society in which they are rooted, 30% of the respondents are agree with the social processes functioning in a society it is important to know the socio-cultural milieu of the society in which they are rooted and 10%of the respondents said disagree with the above statement.

Q2. The Bodo group includes the most numerous tribes, occupying not only the hills parts but also the valley parts from Dhubri to Sadiya. Even before the advent of Ahoms the Kachari and Chutiya kingdoms were established by them.

Criteria Frequency Percentage
Highly Agree 17 34%
Agree 14 28%
Neutral 10 20%
Disagree 6 12%
Highly Disagree 3 6%

 ANALYSIS

As per shown in the above pie graph, 34% of the respondents are highly agree with the Bodo group includes the most numerous tribes, occupying not only the hills parts but also the valley parts from Dhubri to Sadiya, 28% of the respondents are agree with the Bodo group includes the most numerous tribes, occupying not only the hills parts but also the valley parts from Dhubri to Sadiya and 12% of the respondents are disagree with the above statement.

Q3. Kachari is a generic term for a number of groups speaking a more or less common dialect or language and claiming a common mythical ancestry and others regarded the Kachari as aborigines, or the earliest known inhabitants of the Brahmaputra valley i.e, the whole of modern Assarn, North Bengal and parts of Bangladesh.

Criteria Frequency Percentage
Highly Agree 20 40%
Agree 14 28%
Neutral 10 20%
Disagree 4 8%
Highly Disagree 2 4%

 ANALYSIS

As per shown in the above pie graph, 40% of the respondents are highly agree with Kachari is a generic term for a number of groups speaking a more or less common dialect or language and claiming a common mythical ancestry, 28% of the respondents are agree with the same statement and 20% of the respondents are neutral with the above statement.

Q4. A few tribes have become Hinduised and no more do they identify themselves with Kacharis. The Bodo or cognate language speakers from Tripura, due to their long isolation from the parental stock have drifted apart, and have established their separate identity.

Criteria Frequency Percentage
Highly Agree 17 34%
Agree 15 30%
Neutral 8 16%
Disagree 6 12%
Highly Disagree 4 8%

ANALYSIS

As per shown in the above pie graph, 34% of the respondents are highly agree with the Bodo or cognate language speakers from Tripura, due to their long isolation from the parental stock have drifted apart, and have established their separate identity, 30% of the respondents are agree with the same and 8% of the respondents are highly disagree with the above statement.

Q5. It is well understood that the ethnic boundaries of various communities are not strictly fixed and as they are constantly subjected to the process of fission and fusion.

Criteria Frequency Percentage
Highly Agree 20 40%
Agree 16 32%
Neutral 7 14%
Disagree 5 10%
Highly Disagree 2 4%

ANALYSIS

As per shown in the above pie graph, 40% of the respondents are highly agree with the ethnic boundaries of various communities are not strictly fixed and as they are constantly subjected to the process of fission and fusion, 32% of the respondents are agree with the ethnic boundaries of various communities are not strictly fixed and as they are constantly subjected to the process of fission and fusion and 10% of the respondents are disagree with the above statement.

Q6. Ethnicity is created and re-created when societies undergo socio-economic change and structural transformation .In the context of the Bodos it would seem that all the above tribes, though Ithey have attained a certain degree of autonomy, together they form a large group.

Criteria Frequency Percentage
Highly Agree 17 34%
Agree 14 28%
Neutral 10 20%
Disagree 6 12%
Highly Disagree 3 6%

 ANALYSIS

As per shown in the above pie graph, 34% of the respondents are highly agree with ethnicity is created and re-created when societies undergo socio-economic change and structural transformation,28% of the respondents are agree with ethnicity is created and re-created when societies undergo socio-economic change and structural transformation and 12% of the respondents are disagree with the above statement.

Q7. The Bodos are found in almost all the areas of Assam in various configurations though they came from Tibet and settled in the lower parts of Bhutan, later got scattered to the different parts of North-East India diachronically. They moved west and reached Cooch Behar , Rangpur, and Dinajpur districts of North Bengal and even North Bihar. Some sections of the Bodos moved southwards and settled in the Garo hills, Tripura, and Sylhet and Mymensing districts of the present Bangladesh.

Criteria Frequency Percentage
Highly Agree 18 36%
Agree 14 28%
Neutral 10 20%
Disagree 5 10%
Highly Disagree 3 6%

ANALYSIS

As per shown in the above pie graph, 36% of the respondents are highly agree with the Bodos are found in almost all the areas of Assam in various configurations though they came from Tibet and settled in the lower parts of Bhutan, later got scattered to the different parts of North-East India diachronically, 28% of the respondents are agree with the same and 6% of the respondents are highly disagree with the above statement.

Q8. The main concentration of the Bodos is in Assam. Their main habitat is now on the northern bank of the river Brahmaputra, starting from Dhuburi and Kokrajhar district, Goalpara district in the west, Dhemaji sub-division of Lakhimpur district to the east.

Criteria Frequency Percentage
Highly Agree 21 42%
Agree 14 28%
Neutral 9 18%
Disagree 4 8%
Highly Disagree 2 4%

ANALYSIS

As per shown in the above pie graph, 42% of the respondents are highly agree with the main concentration of the Bodos is in Assam, 28% of the respondents are agree with the main concentration of the Bodos is in Assam, 18% of respondents are neutral with the main concentration of the Bodos is in Assam and 8% of the respondents are disagree with the above statement.

CHAPTER – 6

FINDINGS

 

  • 36% of the respondents are highly agree with the social processes functioning in a society it is important to know the socio-cultural milieu of the society in which they are rooted, 30% of the respondents are agree with the social processes functioning in a society it is important to know the socio-cultural milieu of the society in which they are rooted and 10%of the respondents said disagree with the above statement.

 

  • 34% of the respondents are highly agree with the Bodo or cognate language speakers from Tripura, due to their long isolation from the parental stock have drifted apart, and have established their separate identity, 30% of the respondents are agree with the same and 8% of the respondents are highly disagree with the above statement.
  • 40% of the respondents are highly agree with the ethnic boundaries of various communities are not strictly fixed and as they are constantly subjected to the process of fission and fusion, 32% of the respondents are agree with the ethnic boundaries of various communities are not strictly fixed and as they are constantly subjected to the process of fission and fusion and 10% of the respondents are disagree with the above statement.

 

CHAPTER – 7

CONCLUSION

 

 

 

CHAPTER – 8

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

 

REFERENCES

  1. Benveniste, Émile. Indo-European Language and Society, translated by Elizabeth Palmer. London: Faber and Faber, 2015. ISBN 0-87024-250-4.
  2. Benveniste, Émile. Origines de la formation des noms en indo-européen, 2015.
  3. Fried, Morton H. The Notion of Tribe. Cummings Publishing Company, 2015. ISBN 0-8465-1548-2.
  4. Helm, June, ed., 2014. Essays on the Problem of Tribe, Proceedings, American Ethnological Society, 2014 (Seattle: University of Washington Press).
  5. James, Paul (2014). Globalism, Nationalism, Tribalism: Bringing Theory Back In. London: Sage Publications.
  6. James, Paul (2014). “Relating Global Tensions: Modern Tribalism and Postmodern Nationalism”. Communal/Plural. 9 (1).
  7. Nagy, Gregory, Greek Mythology and Poetics, Cornell University Press, 2014. In chapter 12, beginning on p. 276, Professor Nagy explores the meaning of the word origin and social context of a tribe in ancient Greece and beyond.
  8. Sutton, Imre, Indian Land Tenure: Bibliographical Essays and a Guide to the Literature (NY: Clearwater, 2013): tribe—pp. 101–02, 180–2, 186–7, 191–3.
  9. Renfrew, Colin, and Paul G. Bahn. Archaeology: Theories, Methods and Practice. New York: Thames and Hudson, 2013.
  10. https:/wikipedia.org

 

 

APPENDIX

QUESTIONNAIRE

Dear Respondents,

I …………………, a student of “PG DIPLOMA IN FOLKLORE AND CULTURE STUDIES”. I am underlying a project named “STUDY ON THE ORIGIN, LIFESTYLE AND CULTURE OF NORTH-EAST INDIAN TRIBES”. To enables to undertake above mentioned study, I request you to give your fair views. Your insights and perspective are important and valuable for my research.

 

Policy on Confidentiality: Please feel free to give your honest responses. The confidentiality of the information provided by the respondent is completely assured

Name:

Age   :                                    Gender:  Male                 Female 

Education:

Organization:

Designation:

No of years in the organization:

 

Q1. In order to understand the social processes functioning in a society it is important to know the socio-cultural milieu of the society in which they are rooted.

  1. Highly agree
  2. Agree
  3. Neutral
  4. Disagree
  5. Highly disagree

Q2. The Bodo group includes the most numerous tribes, occupying not only the hills parts but also the valley parts from Dhubri to Sadiya. Even before the advent of Ahoms the Kachari and Chutiya kingdoms were established by them.

  1. Highly agree
  2. Agree
  3. Neutral
  4. Disagree
  5. Highly disagree

 

Q3. Kachari is a generic term for a number of groups speaking a more or less common dialect or language and claiming a common mythical ancestry and others regarded the Kachari as aborigines, or the earliest known inhabitants of the Brahmaputra valley i.e, the whole of modern Assarn, North Bengal and parts of Bangladesh.

  1. Highly agree
  2. Agree
  3. Neutral
  4. Disagree
  5. Highly disagree

 

Q4. A few tribes have become Hinduised and no more do they identify themselves with Kacharis. The Bodo or cognate language speakers from Tripura, due to their long isolation from the parental stock have drifted apart, and have established their separate identity.

  1. Highly agree
  2. Agree
  3. Neutral
  4. Disagree
  5. Highly disagree

 

Q5. It is well understood that the ethnic boundaries of various communities are not strictly fixed and as they are constantly subjected to the process of fission and fusion.

  1. Highly agree
  2. Agree
  3. Neutral
  4. Disagree
  5. Highly disagree

 

Q6. Ethnicity is created and re-created when societies undergo socio-economic change and structural transformation .In the context of the Bodos it would seem that all the above tribes, though Ithey have attained a certain degree of autonomy, together they form a large group.

  1. Highly agree
  2. Agree
  3. Neutral
  4. Disagree
  5. Highly disagree

 

Q7. The Bodos are found in almost all the areas of Assam in various configurations though they came from Tibet and settled in the lower parts of Bhutan, later got scattered to the different parts of North-East India diachronically. They moved west and reached Cooch Behar , Rangpur, and Dinajpur districts of North Bengal and even North Bihar. Some sections of the Bodos moved southwards and settled in the Garo hills, Tripura, and Sylhet and Mymensing districts of the present Bangladesh.

  1. Highly agree
  2. Agree
  3. Neutral
  4. Disagree
  5. Highly disagree

 

Q8. The main concentration of the Bodos is in Assam. Their main habitat is now on the northern bank of the river Brahmaputra, starting from Dhuburi and Kokrajhar district, Goalpara district in the west, Dhemaji sub-division of Lakhimpur district to the east.

  1. Highly agree
  2. Agree
  3. Neutral
  4. Disagree
  5. Highly disagree