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Learner needs to follow following steps in Research:

  • Introduction: Gives a brief introduction and background of the topic and identification and formulation of research problem for the study. Student is required to identify the grey area in law and to find a probable conclusion for the problem.
  • Literature Review: Research problem cannot be identified unless the learner reviews the available literature on the topic. Learner is supposed to read at least 7-8 books, journals, magazines or any other available quality literature for the review.
  • Research Questions: Formulating the questions to be researched, based on the literature review.
  • Objective, scope and Significance of study: What is the purpose and scope of this study? What is the grey area in the existing law and how it has to be remedied? What will be the contribution of researcher for enhancement of the existing knowledge?
  • Methodology and Tools of data collection: Research Methodology to be adopted by the learner (doctrinal or non-doctrinal), tools to be adopted for data collection etc.
  • Analysis: Analysis of the collected data.
    Limitation: Constraints of study.
  • Conclusions, Suggestions & Recommendations: Related to each objective and research question.

Citation-
Students need to follow the below given link for how to give citation.
http://www.ili.ac.in/footnoting12.pdf

RULES OF FOOTNOTING

The Institute has formulated a set pattern of footnoting, which is followed in The Journal of Indian
Law Institute, Annual Survey of Indian Law and various other publications of the Institute.
Contributors of articles, notes and comments and essays are required to follow this pattern.
Part I
MODE OF CITATION FOR BOOKS
A. FOR AN AUTHORED BOOK
(i) By a single author:
Name of the author, Title of the book p.no. (if referring to specific page or pages) (Publisher, Place
of publication, edition/year of publication).
E.g. M.P. Jain, Indian Constitutional Law 98 (Kamal Law House, Calcutta, 5th edn., 1998).
(ii) By two authors:
Name of the authors, Title of the book p.no. (if referring to specific page or pages) (Publisher, Place
of publication, edition/year of publication).
E.g. M.P.Jain and S.N. Jain, Principles of Administrative Law 38 (Wadhawa, Nagpur, 2001)
(iii) By multiple authors (more than two):
Name of the first two authors, et.al., Title of the book p.no. (if referring to specific page or pages)
(Publisher, Place of publication, edition/year of publication).
E.g. Jerry L. Mashaw, Richard A. Merrill, et.al., The American Public Law System – Cases and
Materials 50 (West Group, St. Paul, MN, 1992).

B. FOR EDITED BOOKS
(i) By a single editor:
Name of the editor (ed.), Title of the book p.no. (if referring to specific page or pages) (Publisher,
Place of publication, edn/year).
E.g. Nilendra Kumar (ed.), Nana Palkhivala: A Tribute (Universal Publishers, Delhi, 2004).
(ii) By two editors:
Name of the editors (eds.), Title of the book p.no. (if referring to specific page or pages) (Publisher,
Place of publication, edn/year).
E.g. S.K. Verma and Raman Mittal (eds.), Intellectual Property Rights: A Global Vision 38-42 (ILI,
Delhi, 2004).
(iii) By more than two editors:
Name of the editors, the first two only, et.al. (eds.), Title of the book p.no. (if referring to specific
page or pages) (Publisher, Place of publication, edn/year).
E.g. Chatrapati Singh, P.K. Coudhary, et.al. (eds.), Towards Energy Conservation Law 78 (ILI,
Delhi, 1989)
(iv) By, or an auspices of, an organization/institution:
Indian Law Institute, Index to Indian Legal Periodicals (ILI, Delhi, 2002)

Part II
MODE OF CITATION FOR ARTICLES/ESSAYS

(i) Citation of a paper published in a journal/periodical:
Name of author of the article, title of the essay within inverted commas, volume number of journal,
Name of the journal in abbreviation & page number (year).
E.g. K. Madhusudhana Rao, “Authority to Recommend President’s Rule under Article 356 of the
Constitution” 46 JILI 125 (2004).
(ii) Citation of a paper published in a case reporter:
P.K. Thakur, “Permissibility of Probation in Offences Punishable with Minimum Imprisonment” 2
SCJ 26-38 (2002).
(iii) Citation of an essay published in a book edited:
Name of author of the essay, title of the essay within inverted commas, in Name of the editor(s), title
of the edited book page number (publisher, edition/year).
E.g. R.K. Nayak, “Evolving Global Drugs Law for the 21 st Century” in D.C. Jayasuriya, R.K.
Nayak et.al.(eds.), Global Drugs Law 70 (1997).
(iv) Citation of an essay published as a part of a Survey of Law (e.g.
Annual Survey of Indian Law – [an annual publication of the Indian Law Institute, New
Delhi]:
Name of author of the essay, title of the essay within inverted commas, volume number name of the
survey, page number (year).
E.g.: P.S. Jaswal, “Constitutional Law-I” XXXVIII ASIL 115-150(2002).
(v) Citation of a write-up published in a newspaper/periodical:
Name of the writer, Title of the write-up within inverted commas, Name of the newspape,r date.
Robert I. Freidman, “India’s Shame: Sexual Slavery and Political Corruption are Leading to an AIDS
Catastrophe” The Nation, Apr. 8, 1996.
(vi) Citation of an editorial from a newspaper:
Editorial, Title of the Editorial within inverted commas Name of the newspaper, date.
Editorial, “Short-circuited” The Times of India, Aug. 2, 2004.
(vii) Citing a reference form Encyclopedia:
Edwin R.A. Seligman (ed.), XV Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences (The Macmillan Co., NY,
1957).

Part III
WEBSITES

If the websites gives information as to when it was last modified, the must be cited, if not one must
cite the date of visiting the website.
(i) Information Technology Act 2000, India, available at:
http://www.mit.gov.in/it-bill.asp (Last Modified July 29, 2003).
(ii) Information Technology Act 2000, India, available at:
http://www.mit.gov.in/it- bill.asp (Visited on July 29, 2003).

Part IV
UNPUBLISHED WORKS

i. Unpublished Research Work (E. g., Dissertation/Thesis):
Name of the Researcher, Title of the dissertation/thesis (Year) (Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Name of
the University/organization). Raman Mittal, xyz (2004) (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Punjab
University).
ii. Interviews:
Interview with M. Veerappa Moily, Law Minister, The Hindu, July 25, 2004.
iii. Forthcoming publication of a book:
G. Gann Xu, Information for Corporate IP Management (In Press, 2004).
iv. Forthcoming publication of an article:
Shabistan Aquil,, “Classification of Human Rights””, in S.K. Verma, Shabistan Aquill, et. al. (eds.),
Human Rights: Cases and Material (In Press, 2004)

Part V
MODE OF CITATION OF CASE LAW

(a) All India Reporter (AIR)
(i) If the case name and citation together are to be written in the text of the article itself [Note: This
format is not allowed in JILI):
Kesavananda Bharati v. State of Kerala (AIR 1962 SC 933).
(ii) If the name and citation are to be written in the footnote itself:
Kesavnanda Bharati v. State of Kerala, AIR 1962 SC 933.
(iii) Where the case title is written in the body of the text, only the name of the case shall be in the
text e.g. Kesavananda Bharathi v. State of Kerala and the citation is written in the footnote as AIR
1973 SC 1461.
(b) Supreme Court Cases (SCC)
(i) If the case name and citation together are to be written in the text of the article itself [Note: This
format is not allowed in JILI]:
Jassa Singh v. State of Haryana [(2002) 2 SCC 481]
(ii) If the name and citation are to be written in the footnote itself:
(Jassa Singh v. State of Haryana (2002) 2 SCC 481.
(iii) If the case title is to be written in the body of the research paper, only the name of the case shall
be written e.g., Jassa Singh v. State of Haryana then the citation would be written in the footnote as
(2002) 2 SCC 481.
(c) Criminal Law Journal (Cr.L.J)
Lakhwinder Singh & Ors. v. State of Punjab, 2003 Cri LJ 3058 (SC).
Ujjagar Singh v. State of Haryana, 2003 Cri LJ 1691 (P&H).
(d) All England Reports (All ER)
Wilcox v. Jeffery [1951]
(e) If parties to a case are numerous, for e.g.
State of Punjab v. Union of India
This case is to be cited as:
State of Punjab v. Union of India (1977) 3 SCC 592.

Part VI
ACTS

The Information Technology Act, 2000 (Act 21 of 2000).
Part VII
REPORTS
(i) Law Commission of India, 144 th Report on Conflicting Judicial Decisions Pertaining to the Code
of Civil Procedure, 1908 (April, 1992).
(ii)Government of India, Report: Committee on Reforms of Criminal Justice System (Ministry of
Home Affairs, 2003).