INTERNET USERS’ ATTITUDE TOWARDS INTERNET ADVERTISEMENT: A STUDY WITH REFERENCE TO DELHI CITY
UNDER SUPERVISION OF
ROLLNO. NO. : ……………….
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for qualifying
Master of Business Administration
This is to certify that the project titled “INTERNET USERS’ ATTITUDE TOWARDS INTERNET ADVERTISEMENT” is an original work of the Student and is being submitted in partial fulfillment for the award of the “MASTER’S DEGREE IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (IT)” of SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. This report has not been submitted earlier either to this University or to any other University/Institution for the fulfillment of the requirement of a course of study.
SIGNATURE OF SUPERVISOR SIGNATURE OF STUDENT
Place: New Delhi Place: New Delhi
Date : : / /2014 Date : : / /2014
With Candor and Pleasure I take opportunity to express my sincere thanks and obligation to my esteemed guide ……………………….. It is because of his able and mature guidance and co-operation without which it would not have been possible for me to complete my project.
It is my pleasant duty to thank all the staff member of the computer center who never hesitated me from time during the project.
Finally, I gratefully acknowledge the support, encouragement & patience of my family, and as always, nothing in my life would be possible without God, Thank You!
I hereby declare that this project work titled “INTERNET USERS’ ATTITUDE TOWARDS INTERNET ADVERTISEMENT” is my original work and no part of it has been submitted for any other degree purpose or published in any other from till date.
The empirical findings in this project are based on the data collected by myself while preparing this report.
This project is completed as a part of curriculum & all that information collected is correct to the best of my knowledge.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER NO. TITLE PAGE NO.
1. Introduction to the study……………………………………………..7
2. Company Profile……………………………………………………..25
3. Review of Literature………………………………………………….28
4. Objective of the Study….……………………………………………40
5. Research Methodology ………………………………………………41
6. Data Analysis and Interpretation……………………………………..45
8. Conclusion and Major Findings………………………………….…..71
TITLE OF THE PROJECT
“INTERNET USERS’ ATTITUDE TOWARDS INTERNET ADVERTISEMENT”
CHAPTER – 1
INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY
We as individual learn attitude through experience and interaction with other people. Our attitude towards a firm and its products as consumers greatly influence the success or failure of the firm’s marketing strategy. Attitude and attitude change are influenced by consumer’s personality and life style. Consumers screen information that conflict with their attitude. We distort information that that reinforce our attitude, in other words, brand loyalty. But, there is a difference between attitude and intention to buy (ability to buy).
Through acting and learning, people acquire belief and attitudes, which in turn, Influence their buying behavior. A belief is a descriptive thought that a person holds about something. A customer may believe that Taj group of hotels in the price range. These beliefs may be based on real knowledge, option, or faith. They may or may not carry an emotional charge.
Marketers are interested in the beliefs that people have about specific products and services. Beliefs reinforce product and brand images. People act on beliefs. If unfolded customer beliefs deter purchase marketers will to do change them. Unfolded consumer beliefs can severely affect the revenue and even the life if companies.
In terms of efficiency, the advertising industry is now starting to rise out of its century-long infancy. The new era of innovative advertising can be called as “the new Wanamaker era”. John Wanamaker was a devoutly Christian merchant from Philadelphia, who in the 1870s not only invented department stores and price tags but also became the first modern advertiser. He was the first advertiser who bought space in newspapers to promote his chain of stores. He brought a much needed revolution in the advertising world. A few years ago, when the Internet hit the market, advertising industry got a new medium. And soon whole advertising world was taken by storm in capitalising on this media.
According to a recent advertising industry survey, it was revealed that Internet advertising will be generating $428 billion revenues this year. This is a whooping amount in comparison to the last year’s $220 billion. It has been now proved that approximately 21 percent of Internet users consider online advertising to be the most relevant advertising system. Internet advertising has overtaken other traditional advertising media such as newspapers, magazines, and radio.
With new platforms for advertising evolving on a continual basis, it can be complicated to choose the right medium. By having a solid understanding of certain aspects of Internet advertising, companies can find the right media mix that works. To achieve success in Internet advertising, you ought to have a clear knowledge of the basics of Internet functioning. Additionally, you should try to understand that some media can work for you better than others depending on your type of customers and the products you offer. Internet advertising would work wonders if your customer base can be from any part of the world and transaction can be handled well over the Internet. It also works well with certain types of products and services and also depends on certain regions. While Internet advertising can directly relate to sales, it can have huge effectiveness on exercises of brand awareness, recognition and networking.
Majority business owners worldwide know that the Internet has now become an essential tool when it comes to running their businesses successfully. However, you should also understand the role played by the Internet in the lives of their customers. You should be capable to locate people who are using the Internet; their key interests in the time spend on the Internet and their preferences to purchase products and services on a daily basis.
An attitude describes a person’s relatively consistent evaluations, feeling, and tendencies towards an object or an idea. Attitudes put people into a frame of mind for liking or disliking things and moving towards or away from the. E.g. many people have developed the attitude that eating healthy food is important perceive vegetables as a healthy alternatives to meat and chicken. As a result, the per capita consumption of vegetables has increased during recent years, leading the meat and chicken producers’ council to try change consumer attitudes that chicken and meat are unhealthy. Companies can benefit by researching attitudes towards changing or reinforcing them.
Attitudes are difficult to change. A person’s attitude fit into pattern and changing one attitude may require making many difficult adjustments. It is easier for a company to create products that are compatible with existing attitudes than to change the attitude towards their products. There are exceptions, of course, where the high cost of trying to change attitude may pay off.
People have attitude about almost everything: religion, politics, clothes, music and food etc. There may be positive as well as negative attitude. However, once negative attitudes are developed, they are hard to change.
Attitudes are defined as a mental predisposition to act that is expressed by evaluating a particular entity with some degree of favor or disfavor. The value of attitude in marketing can be explained in terms of its importance in prediction, diagnostic value and also as relatively inexpressive information that is easily obtained.
1.1.1 The three components of attitude
a) The cognitive component: – The first part of the tricomponent attitude model consists of a person’s cognitive that is, the knowledge and perception that are required by a combination of direct experience with the attitude object and related information from various sources. This knowledge and resulting perception commonly take the form of beliefs: that is, the consumer believes that the attitude object possesses various attributes and that specific behavior will lead to specific outcomes.
b) The Affective component: – A consumer’s emotions or feeling about particular product or brand constitute the effective component of an attitude. These emotions and feeling are frequently treated by consumer researchers as primarily evaluative in nature; that is, they capture an individual rates the attitude object as favorable or unfavorable
c) The Conative component: – Conative, the final component of the tri-component attitude model, is concerned with the likelihood or tendency that an individual will undertake a specific action or behave in a particular way with regard to the attitude object. According to some interpretations, the conative component may include the actual behavior itself.
Effort to pursed men to buy or trade something can be traced back thousands of years. In ancient Greece, town cries sold slaves and cattle, made public announcements, and chanted advertising rhymes that must have sounded somewhat like today’s singing commercials. The tools, the specialization, and the institutions to carry out these intensions came later and have been refined to their present state largely since 1900. The word advertising is derived from the Latin “Advertare” which means ‘to turn the mind to’. Advertisement turns the attention of the public to a commodity. This world connotes different meaning to different sets of people. It is a multi-dimensional term, which can be viewed as a form of communication, as a component of an economic system and as a means of financing the mass media. Different authors and bodies have defined advertising in different ways.
The American Marketing Association (AMA) defines advertising as many paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion and promotion of ideas, goods and services by an identical sponsor. Advertising is a powerful means of communication that not only leads to corporate and product visibility but also creates, simulates and sustains the demand for the product.
The past few decades have led to the emergence of vibrant consumer marketers throbbing with the excitement of competition. The corporate organizations of today can hardly afford to remain faceless entities and their products merely utilization object. It becomes increasingly imperative for the business houses to assume humanized character and the products (or service) to have an emotion association through advertising effort. Advertising is a powerful means of communication that not only leads to corporate and product visibility but creates, stimulates and sustains the demand for the product.
The uses of advertising are many and advertising is a consecutive part of our social fabric. It acts like a bridge of hope for producers to set across to the consumers and facilitates communication from one part of the world to another. It provides consumer with information about availability of products, their prices and characteristics. We can say that advertising brings products almost to the doorstep of the consumers. It dynamic activity and changing in response to advertising represents the force exercised by sellers, chiefly to shift the demand curve although, they may also be used to change the shape of the demand curve for a product. Managements wish to move the demand curve for their product to the right, that is, to bring greater sales a particular price or to get a higher price for a particular quantity than they would have without much selling efforts. To do this they appeal to the consumer’s buying motives with the aim of changing the marginal utility of individual consumers for the class of product featured, and accordingly to change its aggregate demand.
The voices of serious concern about advertisement are not unheard of in the society. The vociferous among them feel that there are a lot of advertisements loaded with misinformation, falsehood, exaggeration and obscenity. A group of people argues that advertising is not at necessary and that it is a waste of resources, it raises the price and does not contribute to the welfare of people. It is charged with creating illusion and glorying sex. It is assailed as an instrument of monopoly that smoothes the competition.
Hence it is of paramount importance that every advertisement should be attractive, suggestive, memorable, instinctive, and believable and goes with the sentiments of people. The ultimate purpose of advertising is to help in the ‘manufacture’ of customers. In the recent years advertising has emerged as a powerful social and economics force. In an open market where consumer is the king, Indian firms are spending awesome sums to advertise their products. Indian advertising has no doubt registered a rapid growth and has acquired a professional character. Advertising business in India is exploding now days.
The present day Indian industry is witnessing the constituents of a market economy. There are business concerns dying for a maximum share out of the cakes not too big to accommodate all of them. There has been a flood of customer goods for the buyer to choose from. There are newer products as well as multiple brands. When it comes to consumer goods in market situation, there are wars on price, quality and positioning fronts. In the light of all these, advertising assumes a great significance. It is a key weapon in marketing warfare. Building added values, for a brand is the prime role of advertising. The success of effective advertising campaigns is twofold: their ability to attract consumer trial with a compelling dramatization of the product’s story, and, their ability to communicate continuous satisfaction or even cumulative benefit a mean of reinforcing loyalty.
Choice of media plays a very crucial role in placing the advertisement and getting the desired results. Several variables such as target-audience, media habits, product message and cost are taken into consideration while making a choice of media. Advertising media like newspaper, magazines, radio, billboards, direct mail, television and other types of media have their own dimensions of consumer approachability in conveying the advertising message. Each media has certain advertising media have different characteristics in relation to their distribution, exposure of the advertising and the communication of advertising.
Print offers the crucial benefits of focus: limited, by its nature, to the literate, it is mapped to a more affluent set of customers than TV is. Since most products are far from achieving complete penetration even in these two classes, using media that reaches them alone is sufficient for spreading brand awareness among target consumers. With literacy level rising, the penetration of print is growing too, increasing the reach it can offer.
Money spent on advertising through print, therefore, is hardly ever wasted by being directed at people outside the universe of customers unlike TV. Of course using print on top of TV will not really bring new customers but also helps in keeping the costs low.
The print media includes newspaper and magazine. There is certain prestige in anything that is printed, and people tend to place same confidence in a printed message because someone has gone to the expense and trouble of putting it into type. When we see an advertisement in a newspaper or magazine, it carries more prestige because back of it is the great newspaper or magazine with its large circulation.
1.3 Internet Advertisement
Internet advertising is a form of advertising that uses the Internet and World Wide Web in order to deliver marketing messages and attract customers.
Internet advertising has become the norm for most big and small companies. It is extremely rare in today’s economy for a large firm to have a marketing department that does not include an e-Advertising group. In fact, special internet advertising analysts and research teams are being hired and created at most major companies. Sites such as Yahoo.com, Google.com, MSN.com and other search engines make billions of dollars in revenue due to internet advertising even though the websites are free for visitors. Nonetheless, internet advertising still does not account for a large part of the advertising budgets of companies. This is partly due to the economic nature of internet advertisements. Since the ability for the internet to display messages is infinite, most ads are extremely cheap in comparison to more expensive TV, magazine or radio advertisements. Such advertisements come in all forms and sizes.
With the development of the digital devices and computer software, various formats of advertising have been introduced in advertisements. This trend includes traditional TV commercials as well as Internet advertising. For example, 3D animation in TV advertising, which is combined with dazzling creative techniques (e.g., animation, text message and color, etc.), is dominant in Internet advertising, with creative techniques still developing. While complex creative tools are said to confuse consumers in their understanding of the originally intended communication messages, it is empirically proven that those heuristic elements evoke positive consumer attitudes and behaviors in the Internet advertising environment. Interactive settings in banner advertisements are another creative appeal to the Internet advertising. Interactivity could be an effective creative tool for the Internet advertising because the Internet makes two-way communication possible.
Even though message itself is believed to be a core element when marketing messages are communicated, it is always big concern for the advertising agencies to decide which creative element should be used and stressed. Creative appeals could be critical factors for the success of advertising campaign. Especially for low involvement products, heuristic elements do play a more significant role. These creative tools are divided into visual or audio expressions. For print advertising, creativity is limited to the visual expression, but both visual and audio elements are important in the multimedia advertising environment. This means that the creative strategy is more important in multimedia advertising. In this regard, it would be quite fruitful for both advertising academics and practitioners if some of the effective creative factors were found in the Internet advertising.
One of the reasons of the rapid acceleration of the growth has certainly been the availability of high-speed connection, which has transformed the Internet in a broadcast medium, almost an alternative to the TV, with all the related benefits to the quality of the messages communicated. This has increased the time spent on line both for individuals and enterprises, while increasing the variety of advertising formats and in general of new offerings which can be utilized.
There are clear advantages of on-line advertising when compared with traditional media. The most evident are the cost, normally a fraction of what would be paid for a comparable format on TV and national press, as well as the extremely short ‘time to market’, since files can be uploaded in a few minutes and can reach the targets in few seconds. This provides extreme flexibility to the marketers, who are able to modify their communications virtually on line, according to their needs
Among the other advantages is the possibility to precisely target the predetermined audiences, thanks to the availability of statistics on the visitors of the different sites: here both the choice of the targets and the results of the communication are much more specific and quantifiable than most other traditional media. Once the advertisement has been on line for some time, the quantity of statistics generated by the viewers will continue to grow and evolve, allowing the advertiser to analyze the consumer reactions quite rapidly and accordingly fine tune the campaigns in progress, rather than doing this subsequently through a ‘post mortem’ which will then lead to expensive reruns.
Also in terms of impact of the communication, the online one can count on the fact of a virtually unlimited advertising space: if the attention and interest of the consumer is captured, he will be able to watch the communication over and over again (vs. the broadcast media). He will also be able to dynamically interact with the advertiser through the links conveniently placed in the ad (vs. the press media), watch other communications of the same Company or other formats of the same advertisement.
Apart from what mentioned above, the Internet environment delivers also another fundamental function that no other traditional medium does: it also acts as a sales and distribution channel. A consumer who has a specific need for the product/service advertised can buy it right away and finalize the transaction there and then without having to move from his home or office. And the probability that the consumer interest be there is quite high, given the fact that the placement of the advertisement can be precisely selected.
There are a few rules to be followed to make sure that the image of the online advertising is more and more enhanced. Since nowadays for some categories of consumers the time spent on the Internet is often more than the time of exposure to other media, it is clearly important that some of the negatives, which could derive by an unscrupulous usage of the online ads, are minimized.
As most of the net surfers might have experienced, the frequency of unwanted pop-up ads can become extremely annoying, to the point that the users could decide to avoid visiting that certain site so as to do without an unnecessary botheration. This phenomenon was much more spread during the first years of the Internet revolution: the use of pop-up blockers, and the fact that many search engines offer them free of cost has clearly improved the earlier situation. Also, it is very important that a feeling of trust is established with the remote consumer, so as to prompt him to use the net more and more and increase the number of services utilized. The unfortunate presence of unsecured sites, affected by viruses, or publishers with opportunistic goals who do not hesitate to bombard the surfers with irrelevant messages, does not facilitate the building of this trust. For this purpose, the wisdom of the advertisers, as well as a certain standardization of the advertising products can certainly be beneficial. There is in fact a recently created body in the UK, which has de-facto become the standard for the advertising formats of many sites. Privacy, relevance and trust are therefore the necessary tools to ensure that the consumers get the necessary comfort to rely on Internet vendors and publishers.
While we just mentioned a serious effort from the industry to create user friendly rules through standardized formats, it is also true that the acceleration of the growth of the Internet era tends to create in parallel new business models, ad networks and formats.
As far as the formats are concerned, a recently created one, called interstitial (or transitional page), consists of a full page that resides between Web sites pages. Recent surveys would indicate that the consumer attitude towards these is much more positive than that on pop-ups; also their higher capacity of capturing attention would make them a very effective format. Other new trends are appearing also with the utilization of pop-under and sliders.
Online advertising can be paid both on a per-click basis (performance based), on the more traditional Cost per Impression (CPM), or on a combination of both models. While the first method is on the rise, since it is seen as a more performance-oriented one, with a closer relation between the delivery of the ad and the amount paid, recently new offering have been created on CPM basis. As a matter of fact Google launched a new platform, which permits to deliver graphical ads targeted to particular pages on specific sites. To some extent this is an implicit recognition that even in this kind of media the impression counts, and the new tools available today allow advertisers to start utilizing the Net to build brands, rather than looking at it as a direct marketing tool or generating immediate online sales.
1.3.1 Common ways in which internet advertising is purchased are:
• CPM (Cost per Impression) is where advertisers pay for exposure of their message to a specific audience. CPM costs are priced per thousand impressions. The M in the acronym is the Roman numeral for one thousand.
• CPV (Cost per Visitor) is where advertisers pay for the delivery of a Targeted Visitor to the advertiser’s website.
• CPC (Cost per Click) is also known as Pay per click (PPC). Advertisers pay every time a user clicks on their listing and is redirected to their website. They do not actually pay for the listing, but only when the listing is clicked on. This system allows advertising specialists to refine searches and gain information about their market. Under the Pay per click pricing system, advertisers pay for the right to be listed under a series of target rich words that direct relevant traffic to their website, and pay only when someone clicks on their listing which links directly to their website. CPC differs from CPV in that each click is paid for regardless of whether the user makes it to the target site.
• CPA (Cost Per Action) or (Cost per Acquisition) advertising is performance based and is common in the affiliate marketing sector of the business. In this payment scheme, the publisher takes all the risk of running the ad, and the advertiser pays only for the amount of users who complete a transaction, such as a purchase or sign-up. This is the best type of rate to pay for banner advertisements and the worst type of rate to charge. Similarly, CPL (Cost per Lead) advertising is identical to CPA advertising and is based on the user completing a form, registering for a newsletter or some other action that the merchant feels will lead to a sale. Also common, CPO (Cost per Order) advertising is based on each time an order is transacted.
Thanks to these new instruments, it is likely that also the large advertisers will soon become online media buyers, whereas today the bulk of them are still represented by online sellers such as Amazon end eBay. Evidence that this has already started happening is a recent “agreement between Sprite and MSN that gives the soft drink producer access to platforms ranging from instant messaging to online music services”.
Such developments will clearly change the role of the advertising and media buying agencies that will have to be able to provide a differentiated support to their clients. If an advertiser can finalize a new ad format as well as a media purchase transaction in less than 15 minutes, the traditional way of creating a communication execution, selecting the media, presenting and discussing the media plan with the client, process which could take as long as months, will only be an heritage of the past in an internet dominated environment. Most likely the different agencies will have to create specialized division with specific know-how, so as to offer an all-round service also on the upcoming online media.
1.3.2 Most Popular Types of Internet Advertising: –
a) Banner ads: – The most popular type of internet advertising today. Banners were the first type of advertising in 1994 and continue to be the main staple of success. Banners are graphical bars containing text and/or graphics which are designed to gain the attention and induce the action to click on the advertisement which relocates them to the advertiser’s site. Banners come in an array of shapes and sizes, although standard sizes are becoming more common. Banners can also be considered skyscrapers where the advertisement is vertical and on the left or right hand side of a webpage. Banners try to gain attention by being animated and are usually in GIF format. Many other forms of banners exist on WebPages such as skyscrapers and bulky boxes.
b) Emails: – Email advertisements can be put into two types. Opt-in mailing and spam-mailing. The difference is that Opt-in mailing sends emails to pre-qualified people that have shown interest in receiving information and spam sends the mail to unsanctioned recipients. Spam mail is in a huge debate which has proven to ruin companies and their credibility. These spam mail causes cluttered inboxes and dissatisfied consumers.
c) Interstitial ads: – According to nearly every person pop-up ads are the most irritable type of advertisement. Pop ups consist of a small window that pops up over the main browser when you enter a site. These windows can contain anything to gain the attention of the viewer from graphics, animation and even games. These pop-ups are considered to be very intrusive were it draws the attention of the browser from the webpage there viewing to the advertisement displayed. Advancements have been taken and the new pop-under ads which display themselves outside the material viewed have better click through rates and are said to be less intrusive. This example below popped up onto my site after going to the askjeeves.com website. Some advertising agencies find a new name for more active interstialas as supersiatlas. These websites have more interactive experience and research says are 120% more effective. These types will be explained in more detail later on this page.
d) Keyword ads: – Keyword advertising is the most popular way for the product and website to become recognized. More then 20% of all websites are indexed through such search portals as yahoo and Google. Webmasters pay a fee for there webpage to be indexed and web browsers search for keywords on such portals. Researchers say that only the top 50 websites in a search will be browsed through so specific terms and keywords are key for their success. Portals such as Google offer exclusive sponsorship for websites for a required fee for their websites to be shown above the editorial pages.
1.3.3 Future of Internet Advertising: –
As technology seems to be increasing at an exponential rate so does the possibilities of internet advertising. As broadband use increases through users and faster internet is utilized the rate that advertisements that are shown will be never ending. The new era of advertisements using rich media will have faster and bigger pictures with more animation that will attract the viewer. Research continues to be done on its effectiveness and companies will strategically plan to send their messages in more of a tactical way. Revenue will never be known for the future because it depends on the amount of viewers purchase items through ads. The rate of increase on return has been going up at faster and faster rates since its existence and will never be known when it will end.
1.4 Need of the study
AsDelhicity is the symbol of the changes that are taking place in the socio- economic scenario of the country due to urbanization and opening up of the Indian economy, people here are becoming more literate. And there level of living has been raised. Their tastes are changing. With the wide reach of technology, Internet has become one of the most powerful tools for the marketers. Internet advertising seems to have started again a steep growth path, and it is becoming more and more a source of competition for some of the traditional media. As more and more companies are advertising their product or service via internet advertising. So to retain their customers, internet advertising is one of the best advertising media for the advertiser. Various factors that can affect the customers’ attitude are mode of advertisement, confidence about the information provided by the advertiser, product/service quality shown in the advertisement, effect of advertisement on price of product or service, trust in internet advertising etc. The current study is focused on examining the various factors related to internet users’ attitude from internet advertising with the following objectives:
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CHAPTER – 3
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
The literature for review to be collected from secondary sources such as magazines, articles, reports, budgets, news paper etc to highlight the problems and findings of the study done by many research and business professionals to understand the significance of the companies. The objectives of the proposed topic have to be formulated based on the previous study by the many research professionals. Approximately ten to fifteen reviews has to be collected and presented in my project report.
Many studies have been conducted on customer attitude. An attempt has been made to present in brief, a review of literature on customer attitude, in general, and on customer attitude from internet advertising, in particular.
Obenaus (2001) The Internet, a network of computers with distinctive software and hardware, interconnects millions of people world wide and offers tremendous amounts of information. Translators may benefit from the Internet throughout the translation process. The Internet is growing so fast that trying to find the right information is like looking for a needle in a haystack. This paper discusses some of the benefits of the Internet for the translator, and then points out various tools and guides which can be used to get the most out of the Internet.
Paul (2003) examines the impact of the Internet on the marketing aspects of businesses today. Looks at its future and how businesses can use its unlimited potential to their advantage. Concludes that the Internet has many risks associated with its use, but it has many benefits too.
Rowley: examines the challenges that shopping and other commercial transactions on the Internet pose for the retail industry. An increasing number of shopping malls, selling an ever-widening selection of products, are becoming available on the Internet. There are, however, still a number of challenges facing the Internet retailer and shopper. These include: locating the shops, comparison shopping, security, especially in relation to financial transactions, the customer base and profile, the nature of the shopping experience, and legal and marketplace controls or lack of them. It is possible to make money on the Internet without selling, but by using the Internet to support other business processes. Currently, many retailers are exploring the potential of the Internet, but the market is still in its infancy. Retailers do, however, report increasing sales and a positive contribution to marketing from visibility on the Internet.
Seng (2000) this article discusses the potential benefits of using the Internet to conduct business — to boost business productivity and to enhance business competitiveness. Six key Internet tools and how they can be used to support online commerce are briefly introduced. Ways in which businesses are capitalizing on the use of the Internet as a major strategic tool for commerce are described. The extent to which local firms in Singapore are tapping into the Internet to increase business profitability is also outlined. While there are currently some problems hampering a more widespread adoption of Internet commerce, chief of which is the issue of security, there is nevertheless determined and concerted effort to resolve these.
Gordon & Turner (2003) analyzed that advertising on the Internet can be viewed as a social contract between advertisers and Internet users. The attributes comprising this contract are: access to advertisements, placement of advertisements, message, influence on fee, and information collection. Examines empirically the tradeoffs consumers make among the attributes in the social contract using an online survey analyzed through conjoint analysis. The findings indicate that consumer attitudes towards Internet advertising differ from many predictions about this new media.
Rio: The Internet has existed in India for about 18 months. An attempt has been made here to give information about India’s Internet service providers and information infrastructure, and to group the Internet information sources originating from India into various categories: viz. art, business, campus wide information systems, companies and organizations, data and software, directories, discussion lists/forums, electronic journals, e-mail based info servers, entertainment, investment, medical, multimedia, multipurpose, online information, religion and tourism. The paper also discusses the Internet in the social and commercial context of India and concludes with India’s rapid response in providing its resources over the Net to establish its presence, the growth of Web sites, privatization of access, and PC penetration in the SOHO and home segment.
Goldsmith & Lafferty (2002) the purpose of the present study was to test four hypotheses regarding the effects of viewing Web sites on Internet advertising. We surveyed a convenience sample of 329 undergraduate students, asking them to recall brand names seen on the Internet, to describe perceived advantages and disadvantages of online advertising, and to recall ads encountered in all media and whether they liked these or not. Visiting Web sites appeared to increase aided recall of brands seen on the Internet and to improve consumers’ views of the brand. Consumers who felt that Web sites improved their perceptions of brands saw more advantages in Web advertising, but they perceived more disadvantages as well. Finally, the consumers appeared to like TV and magazine ads more than the ads they recalled seeing on the Internet. The findings present a complex picture of Internet advertising that should be useful to online advertisers.
Kim & Eom (2002) Complementary to the increasing popularity of the Internet and WWW, electronic commerce (e-commerce) has become a fast emerging industry and a significant global economic force. The online retail stores need to attract more visitors and convert them into the customers who actually purchase the products or services. To achieve this goal, these stores need to endeavor to enhance customers’ satisfaction to maintain positive relationships with customers. Satisfied customers have a higher chance of purchasing merchandise from the same store and remaining loyal customers. This study investigates the features that possibly influence the perceived satisfaction of online retail shopping among university students using 27 questionnaire items. The study findings imply that the online retailers may need to put emphasis on specifying how they guarantee on-time delivery and risk-free, hassle-free return clearly on their Web pages. They should follow what they promise as much as possible to improve shoppers’ satisfaction. Clearly specified policies or explanations will perhaps make customers more satisfied and trust site more.
Ewing et al (2003) researched that the Internet is playing an increasingly important role in the marketing activities of organizations across a wide range of industries. While the opportunities afforded by this phenomenon seem readily apparent, there is still much debate and speculation on exactly what impact it will have on marketing. To shed some light on this uncertainty, the present study examines managers’ perceptions of the impact of the Internet on key marketing activities. It employs a quasi-longitudinal research design involving mail surveys to Australian marketing decision makers. Findings suggest that expectations in 1999 may have been unrealistically optimistic and exaggerated. It would appear that the so-called “dot.com crash” has led to more realistic and pragmatic expectations among practicing managers in 2001. The study then focuses on differences in perceptions between industries. As expected, divergent views emerge, particularly from within the services sector.
Kau et al (2003) their article aims to examine the online buying behavior among a group of Internet users. Based on a sample of over 3,700 Internet users, this study explores their information-seeking patterns as well as their motivations and concerns for online shopping. Factor analysis and cluster analysis were used to classify the respondents into six types of online shoppers. Coupled with their demographic information and actual buying behavior, it was possible to constitute a distinct profile for each of the segments. Discriminant analysis was also conducted to seek out the important attitudinal variables that differentiated the various clusters of online shoppers.
Sairosse & Mutula (2003) did a research on the economic impact of cybercafés. The results from the study showed that the cybercafé sector in Gaborone, Botswana, has grown by 1,300 per cent since 2001. The sector is contributing to the gross domestic product of Botswana largely through employment, government taxation and earning the country foreign exchange through e-commerce and e-business transactions. However all was not going well for cybercafés as they were faced with problems of competition, high tariffs, low bandwidth, and high equipment costs, among others. The study recommended the need for the coordination of cybercafé sector in order to make its growth less haphazard; reduction of taxes on computers; enactment of cyber law, modernization and improvement of bandwidth.
Wu (2003) did a research to examine Internet user concerns and perceptions of online shopping. The attitude of Internet users toward online shopping was measured using the Fishbein model. The relative factors influencing user attitudes toward online shopping and the relationship between the attitude and the influence factors were explored. The results show that the Fishbein model can effectively measure consumer attitudes and the examined consumer characteristics were important influence factors on consumer attitudes and online shopping decisions.
Eastman & Iyer (2004) suggested that despite the growth of the Internet, one area that marketers have not really discussed is the elderly use of the Internet. Given the rapid growth of this population as well as the potential the Internet holds for them, it is a subject worth consideration. This paper discusses the use of the Internet by a national random survey of elderly consumers and the impact of attitude, innovation, and demographics on their use. This study shows that the elderly consumers have favorable intentions towards using the Internet; most learned to use the Internet on their own; and they preferred to learn more about the Internet if such classes were offered at convenient locations. Those seniors with higher levels of income are more willing to both use the Internet and purchase products online; while education levels positively impacted only Internet use.
Newman et al (2004) researched that of the many approaches to building a brand’s image on the Internet, a Web site is one of the most important tools for managers. An important decision made by Web site managers is whether to place banner advertisements on their brand’s Web site (e.g. The New Yorker Web site placing an ad for polo.com). While banner advertisements are widespread in the marketplace, it is unclear whether Web sites containing such advertisements may be harming themselves by such a practice. This study addresses this issue by investigating the impact of banner advertisement and Web site congruity on consumer attitudes toward a brand’s Web site. The results of an experiment indicate that if managers include such advertisements on their Web site, these advertisements should be consistent with the Web site brand and that certain consumer characteristics should be considered. Implications of the research for brand management and advertising on the Internet are provided.
Sudershan & Jyoti (2004) have done study on socio, cultural & psychographic dimensions of advertising. The purpose of this study is to present a conceptual frame work regarding the socio, cultural & psychographic dimensions of advertising. Acc to study, advertising is any paid form of non-personal presentation & promotion of ideas, gods or services by an identified sponsor.
Verma & Gupta (2004) provided a conceptual framework & highlighted the emotional appeal in advertisements. Though, emotional appeal has a short life span. But it plays an important role in changing the audience’s attitude towards an advertised product or service. However, no particular appeal rational or emotional is equally effective in the entire situation. Some of the emotions frequently used include adventure (Tata Safari), Love (Chocolates), honesty (Peter England), Patriotism (Amul).
Guda (2005) has researched that internet has brought about a dramatic change in the ways businesses are done in today’s world. It is seen that one of the important issues being faced by organizations around the world is how to build an effective e-business strategy and the relevant technology choices involved thereof. It is pertinent to note in this context that it is not technology alone but how one uses the technology to transform the business processes. In fact, one of the key parameters companies are being evaluated for their marketing efficiency is how well they can adapt themselves to the internet and exploits the advantages of the e-business.
Kim & Park (2005) the purpose of this study is to examine the consumer shopping channel extension focusing on attitude shift from offline to online store with a theoretical approach. The results showed that attitude toward the offline store were a significant predictor of attitude toward the online store. In addition, search intention for product information via the online store was the strongest predictor of consumer’s purchase intention via the online store as well as a mediating variable between predictor variables and purchase intention. In addition, the present paper contributed to the academia by expanding the theory of planned behavior and online prepurchase intention model.
Lii & Lee (2005) The purpose of this study is to examine differences in consumers’ perceptions of an acceptable price range and their responses to the advertised reference price in terms of internal reference price, price-search intention, and perceived value between online and offline retail channels.
So et al (2005) did research to investigate web-shopping behavior in Hong Kong: identification of the general attitude towards web-shopping; relationships between past web-shopping experience, attitude towards web-shopping, adoption decisions, search behavior and web-shopping intentions; and influences of promotional offers and product categories on web-shopping intentions. Web-shopping intentions are directly affected by web-search behavior and web-shopping adoption decisions, and are indirectly affected by web-shopping attitudes, past web-shopping experiences and past experience with the web. Web-search behavior was a stronger factor than adoption decision in terms of influencing web-shopping intentions. The presence of promotional offers had a positive effect on web-shopping intentions, and web-shopping intentions were different for different product categories.
Sumanjeet (2005) Due to emergence and rapid growth of information and communication technology, more and more business activities are shifting to the electronic media. The way business organizations advertise their products or services cannot be exceptions either. Today, online advertising has become a part of companies marketing strategy. There are many forms of online advertising like email, banner, sponsorship, interstitial advertisements, and ad. Network, online coupon, etc. But the most common form of online advertising is banner advertising. It can be found in all types of websites with many forms. In fact, it is the oldest form of online advertising. In the beginning,” advertising” on the internet meant “banner-advertising”. In 1998 or so, banner advertisement was a lucrative business. According to Internet Advertising Bureau (IAB), banner advertisements accounted for 55% of all online advertisements spending in 1998. And today, also banner advertising is the most popular form of advertising on the Net.
Durai (2005) He studied the impact of effective Advertisement, which is a crux of any market economy, plays a pivotal role in the economic progress of a nation. Even the erstwhile socialist nations no longer consider advertisement as a taboo rather they are veering round to the view that it is an indispensable component of any sales promotion measure with its benefit spreading over a long period of time. Advertising is indeed the only direct method which helps to reach masses of potential buyers. Advertising, being dynamic, changes with changing methods of distribution and consumption. Advertisements have become the part of life for everyone as a listener through some media or other. In the present era of information explosion and media influence, these advertisements play a major role in changing the settled perception or thinking, which is otherwise called attitude, of the consumer and also the consumption pattern of the society in general. Thus, the impact leads to cultural and social changes to a great extent. Under this situation, efficacy of the manufacturers, marketers and advertisers is tested in churning out advertisements, matching the expectations of the consumers, which may gradually bring about desired attitudinal changes in them.
Kumar (2005) he did his research on the growing usage of internet& crime associated with it. The finding of the result was that more & more people are becoming net savvy these days. The kind of growth internet has shown over the period of time is amazing & it has resulted in internet crime also.
Prasad & Reddy (2005) have done their research work on use of celebrities in ads & their impact on Consumer behavior. The finding of the study was that the most of the respondents watch ads regularly. Among 3 celebrities chosen for the study, Shahrukh Khan is most liked. Who endorses Hyundai car. The presence of Pierce Brosnan in Reid & Taylor ad has not enhanced the image of the ad when compared with pepsi & Hyundai car ads.
Praveen (2006) Ad revenue is shifting to the internet, spending for online advertising is projected to grow exponentially. Online ad spending increases have been driven by the growing ability to measure campaigns effectively. In today’s market, the question isn’t whether to advertise online – that’s a given – but rather smart advertising. It’s not about buying clicks cheaply, but rather about buying the right clicks. Make sure you’re reaching the right people. The CPM or CPC to reach targeted buyers might be higher, but so will your return on investment. The bottom line is, like so many things in life, quality is more important than quantity.
Bedi (2006) He did his research on the impact of online advertisement & media affecting Consumer behaviour. The finding of the research was that both are strongest medium to influence consumer. It was found after the research that higher income group consumer are more likely to purchase the product due to the influence, while lower income group do not get influenced in such a large extent.
Buckner (2007) did his research on Impact of online advertising & media on word of mouth. The finding of the research was that consumer shop in different way for different products. Marketers who want to succeed in finding the influences for their companies & niches will invest on original customer research to tailor marketing strategy accordingly.
Chan et al (2009) their study found that advertising perceptions had a significant impact on consumers’ intentions to reject the products and the brands. The main purpose was to examine how Chinese and German consumers react to print advertisements that are potentially offensive. Using culture theories about information context, individualism and feminine consciousness, the paper hypothesizes that Chinese consumers will be less accepting of the advertisements than German consumers. It also compares the dimensions of consumer perceptions for both countries and how consumer perceptions are related with intentions to reject the products and the brands because of the ads. Findings on perceptions of the offensive advertisements among Chinese and German respondents were mixed. Overall, as expected, Chinese respondents were less accepting of offensive advertising, as they liked the advertisements less than German respondents. However, they were also more likely than German respondents to find the advertisements convincing and informative. Results showed that Chinese respondents and German respondents had different dimensions of advertising perceptions. The two print advertisements that received the most negative perceptions both contained sexually oriented body images.
Teng & Laroche (2010) the purpose of this research is to show how the dual mediation model has been used to explain consumer responses toward an ad and a brand. This study attempts to incorporate ad affect and competition into the framework and examine the effects of advertising on consumers’ attitudes and purchase intentions in multiple-ad and multiple-brand environments. The findings revealed that the higher level of affective responses to a focal ad significantly leads to a higher evaluation of that ad. Our findings also indicated that information about a competing ad and brand is processed comparatively and that evaluations of the competing ad and brand negatively influence evaluations of a focal ad and brand.
CHAPTER – 4
OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The current study is focused on examining the various factors related to internet users’ attitude from internet advertising with the following objectives:
1) To study the demographic profile of internet users.
2) To study advertisement recall status of users attitudes toward internet advertising.
3) To suggest recommendations for internet advertisers.
4) To study the influences of internet advertising on business world progress.
5) To study the benefit and influence of internet advertisement for internet users.
CHAPTER – 5
The present chapter describes the research methodology of the study. It includes the Research framework, Population and Sample Selection, Collection of Data and Methods for analysis of data. It also points out the limitations of present study.
The present chapter describes the research methodology of the study. It includes the Research framework, Population and Sample Selection, Collection of Data and Methods for analysis of data. It also points out the limitations of present study.
5.1 Scope of the study
The scope of the study is to get the first hand knowledge about the internet users’ attitude towards internet advertisement in Delhi at Tribal Fusion (R&D) Pvt. Ltd.
5.2 Research Design
The research design is the conceptual structure within which research is conducted; it constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement and analysis of data. The present research being conducted followed “Descriptive Research” as I am describing some of the factors which need to be considered while doing the research on Internet user’s attitude towards internet advertisement.
5.3 Data Collection
PRIMARY DATA: Most of the information will be gathered through primary sources’. The methods that will be used to collect primary data and Dichotomous, rating and multiple choice questions will be asked in the schedule.
SECONDARY DATA:. The secondary data will be collected through:
• Text Book
5.4 SAMPLING DESIGN
Universe is the infinite number of elements which the researcher is targeting in the study. The universe for the study consists of all the cyber cafes in Delhi.
Population is the finite number of elements which the researcher is going to target in a particular area. All the cybercafés in Delhi are taken as the population.
A list of internet cyber cafes was prepared. List of internet cyber cafes was prepared. It was prepared with the help of directory, searching on net and yellow pages. List is attached as annexure I. The list contains 5 cyber cafes’ which were selected on random basis. Selected cyber café are listed in table 3.1. Twenty respondents from each selected café were taken to make a sample size of 100.
Table 1 List of cybercafés.
S.NO NAME OF CAFÉ ADDRESS
1 Prabhakars Cyber cafe Adj to Park plaza, Shak ar Pur, Delhi.
2 Reliance Web World Jail road, New Delhi.
3 Reliance Web World Patel Nagar Main Market. Delhi.
4 Sify I Way Internet Café J-Block ,Vikas Puri, Delhi.
5 Kashish Café Main road, JamiaNagar, Delhi
5.4.3 Sampling Unit
Sampling Unit is the single unit of the population. Any individual visiting cyber café.
5.4.4 Sample Size
Sampling size refers to total number of respondents targeted for collecting the data for the research. The sample size of the respondents will be 100. The selection of respondents was done on the basis of convenience sampling (Non- Probability).
Extent refers to the geographical area where there is a scope of population. The extent of the study will be Delhi.
Time involved for the study conducted is one month.
5.4.7 Data Analysis and Interpretation
Now the last step in research methodology chapter is data analysis and interpretation. For the purpose of analyzing, from collection of data, master tables were constructed and analysis of the collected data was done by constructing suitable tables and using percentage methods. Other statistical techniques used include mean scores.
5.5 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY:
Any study based on consumer survey through a pre-designed schedule suffers from the basic limitation of the possibility of difference between what is recorded and what is the truth, no matter how carefully the schedule has been designed and field investigation has been conducted. This is because the consumers may not deliberately report their true preferences and even if they want to do so, there are bound to be differences owing to problems in filters of communication process. The error has been tried to be minimized by conducting interviews personally yet there is no full proof way of obviating the possibility of error creeping in. So, the study suffers from some limitations also. As such generalizing the results, the following limitations of the study should be taken into the account.
1. The study was conducted within the Delhi only.
2. The Delhi is very vast and it was not possible to cover each and every unit in the sample in the available short span of time.
3. As the study was to be completed in a short time, the time factor acted as a considerable limit on the scope and the extensiveness of the study.
4. The information provided by respondents may not be fully accurate due to unavoidable biases.
CHAPTER – 6
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
This chapter contains the analysis and discussion of the primary data collected from the respondents in order to understand the attitude. This chapter is divided into four parts:
6.1 Demographic profile of the respondents
6.2 General attitude towards internet advertisement
6.3 Purchase preferences & responsiveness w.r.t internet advertisement.
6.4 Trust in internet advertising.
6.1 Demographic profile of the respondents
6.1.1 Age wise distribution.
This part shows the distribution of all respondents according to their age. The respondents are classified under the age groups 20-30, 30-40 and above 40. The distribution is given in the following table.
Table 6.1.1 Age wise distribution of respondents (N=100)
Age group(Yrs) Number of respondents Percentage
20-30 71 71%
30-40 23 23%
Above 40 6 6%
The average age of respondent is 28.5 years
Figure 6.1.1Age wise distribution of respondents (N=100)
Analysis: From above table, it is clear that 71 respondents are in the age group of 20-30, 23 respondents belong to age group of 30-40 and 6 belong to age group of above 40.
Interpretation: Majority of the respondents is in their 20’s & only handful is above the age of 40.
6.1.2 Occupation wise distribution of respondents.
This part shows the distribution of all respondents according to their occupation. The respondents are classified under the group professionals, service, retired, student, and business. The distribution is given in the following table.
Table 6.1.2 Occupation wise distributions of respondents (N=100)
Occupation Number of Respondents Percentage
Service 32 32%
Students 49 49%
Housewife & Retired 0 0
Total 100 100
Figure 6.1.2 Occupation wise distributions of respondents (N=100)
Analysis: From the above table, it is clear that 49 respondents are students, 32 are service persons, and 19 are professionals.
Interpretation: Most of the internet users are youngsters’ i.e. students which are followed by servicemen & professionals.
6.1.3 Gender wise distribution of respondents
This part shows the distribution of all respondents according to their gender. The distribution is given in the following table.
Table 6.1.3 Gender wise distribution of respondents (N=100)
Number of respondents Percentage
Figure 6.1.3 Gender wise distribution of respondents (N=100)
Analysis & Interpretation: From above table, it is clear that approximately 73% of respondents are male while the rest 23% are female.
6.1.4 Marital status wise distribution of respondents
This part shows the distribution of all respondents according to their marital status. The distribution is given in the following table.
Table 6.1.4 Marital status wise distribution of respondents (N=100)
Marital status Number of respondents Percentage
Figure 6.1.4 Marital status wise distribution of respondents (N=100)
Analysis & Interpretation: From above table, it is clear that the majority of respondents i.e. 38 %are married while the rest 62% are unmarried.
6.1.5 Income wise distribution of respondents
This part shows the distribution of all respondents according to their income (rs/month). The respondents are classified under the group less than 15000, 15000-30000 and above 30000. The distribution is given in the following table.
Table 6.1.5 Income wise distribution of respondents (N=100)
Income (Rs/month) Number of Respondents Percentage
0- 15000 37 37%
15,00-30,000 45 45%
Total 100 100
The average income of respondent is Rs 19650 per month.
Figure 6.1.5 Income wise distribution of respondents (N=100)
Analysis & Interpretation: From above table, it is clear that the 37% of the respondents belong to 0-15,000 income group, 45% belong to 15,000-30,000 income group and 18% of the respondents belong to income group Above 30,000
6.1.6 Education wise distribution of respondents
This part shows the distribution of all respondents according to their education. The respondents are classified under the group less than graduation, graduation, post graduation, doctorate and any other. The distribution is given in the following table.
Table 6.1.6 Education wise distribution of respondents (N=100)
Education Number of Respondents Percentage
Less than graduation 2 2%
Graduation 34 34%
Post Graduation 62 62%
Doctorate 2 2%
Total 100 100
Figure 6.1.6 Education wise distribution of respondents (N=100)
Analysis & Interpretation: From above table, it is clear that the 2% of the respondents belong to Post graduation group, 2% belong to less than graduation group, 34% of the respondents belong to Graduation group and 62% belong to Doctorate group.
6.2 General attitude towards internet advertisement
6.2.1 Looking at Internet advertisement.
This part shows the distribution of all respondents according to their frequency of looking internet advertising. The respondents are classified under the group never, less than once a month, once a month, several times a month, once a week, several times a week and every day. The distribution is given in the following table.
Table 6.2.8 Frequency of looking at Internet advertisement (N=100)
Frequency of Looking at internet advertisement Number of Respondents Percentage
Never – –
once a month 22 22%
Several times a month 16 16%
Once a week 24 24%
Several times a week 24 24%
Everyday 14 14%
Total 100 100
Figure 6.2.7 Frequency of looking at Internet advertisement
Analysis: From above table, it is clear that the 14% of the respondents look internet advertising everyday, 16% respondents look internet advertising several times a month, 23% of respondents looks internet advertisement once a month, 24% respondents look internet advertising several times a week, 24% respondents look internet advertising once a week.
Interpretation: People often look at internet advertisements at a regular interval of time.
6.2.2 Studying the contents of Internet advertisement
This part shows the distribution of all respondents according to their frequency of studying the contents of internet advertising. The respondents are classified under the group never, once a month, several times a month, once a week, several times a week and every day. The distribution is given in the following table.
Table 6.2.9 Frequency of studying the contents of Internet advertisement (N=100)
Frequency of Studying contents of internet advertisement Number of Respondents Percentage
Never – –
once a month 26 26%
several times a month 19 19%
Once a week 25 25%
Several times a week 19 19%
Everyday 11 11%
Total 100 100
Figure 6.2.8 Frequency of studying the contents of Internet advertisement
Analysis: From above table, it is clear that the 19% of the respondents studying contents of internet advertising several times a month, 27% of respondents studying contents of internet advertising once a month, 19% of respondents studying contents of internet advertising several times a week, 11% of respondents studying contents of internet advertising once a week.
Interpretation: People often read the contents of an advertisement.
6.2.3 Liking towards internet advertisement.
This part shows the distribution of all respondents according to their liking, disliking, neutral responses of the respondents.
Table 6.2.10 Liking towards internet advertisement. (N=100)
Liking towards internet advertisement
Number of Respondents Percentage
Yes 83 83%
No 17 17%
Total 100 100
Figure 4.2.9 Liking towards internet advertisement. (N=100)
Analysis: From above table, it is clear that 83% of respondents like internet advertisements and 13% of respondents do not like internet advertisement.
Interpretation: Almost all of the people like Internet advertisement.
6.2.4 Liking towards mode of advertisement
To study the preferences of internet users’ towards various mode of advertisement, users’ were asked to rate on the scale of strongly disliked, disliked, neutral, liked and most liked various modes. Then the mean score for each factor is calculated. The results are given in the following table:
Table 6.2.11 Liking towards mode of advertisement (N=100)
Mode of advertisement MD L DL N L ML Total Score Mean score
-2 -1 0 1 2
Pop up windows showing advertisements.
-20 (10) -44 (44) 0 (32) 14 (14) – -50 -0.5
– -44 (44) 0 (14) 42 (42) – -2 -0.02
Portion of personnel mail
-6 (3) -42 (42) 0 (26) 29 (29) – -19 -0.19
– -1 (1) 0 (15) 66 (66) 36 (18) 101 1.01
Advertising appearing on web. Some time blocking some view of it.
-16 (8) -37 (37) 0 (43) 12 (12) – -41 -0.41
Personalized advertisement -4 (2) -8 (8) 0 (62) 28 (28) – 16 0.16
MDL= Most disliked (-2), DL = Disliked (-1), N=Neutral (0), L=Liked (1), ML= Most Liked (2), (…) = Number of responses
Figure 6.2.10 Liking towards mode of advertisement
Popup Windows (-0.5)
E-mail Advertisement (-0.02)
Personnel mail Advertisement (-0.19)
Animated Advertisement (1.01)
Personalized E-mail (0.16)
Analysis: From the above table, it is clear that .the respondents are inclined towards animated advertisement most. Mean of this is 1.01. This is followed by personalized advertisement with mean 0.16. Respondents’ don’t like ads blocking web page, ads in portion of personnel mail and popup ads with a mean score of -0.41, -0.19, -0.5 respectively.
Interpretation: Only few of the respondents don’t like animated ads, but otherwise every respondent like them. Personalized e-mail is also liked, but not as much animated one. Ads blocking the web page are most disliked one among all the respondents. Popup windows are also in the same category.
6.2.5 General attitude of internet users’ attitude towards internet advertising
To study the general behavior of the internet users’ towards various factors users’ were asked to rate on the scale of strongly disagree, disagree, neutral, agree, and strongly agree to various factors. Then the mean score for each factor is calculated. The results are given in the following table:
Table 6.2.12 General attitude of internet users’ attitude towards internet advertising (N=100)
Parameters SDA DA N A SA T. score Mean Score
-2 -1 0 1 2
I think most of the internet advertisements are informative.
-4 (2) -11 (11) 0 (32) 54 (54) 2 (1) 41 0.41
I like to look at most internet advertisements that I am exposed to.
-10 (5) -7 (7) 0 (43) 45 (45) – 28 0.28
Innovative internet advertisements attract me.
-10 (5) -3 (3) 0 (14) 65 (65) 26 (13) 78 0.78
Advertising on internet fills my information gap especially related to products or services current deals.
-4 (2) -8 (8) 0 (31) 52 (52) 14 (7) 54 0.54
Offended by internet advertising @
20 (4) 36 (19) 165 (55) 40 (20) 2 (1) 263 2.63
Misled by internet advertising @ 5 (1) 92 (23) 177 (59) 32 (16) 1 (1) 307 3.07
SDA= Strongly disagree (-2), DA= Disagree (-1), N=Neutral (0), A=Agree (1), SA= Strongly agree (2), (…) = Number of responses
@ Scale anchors (5=Very Often, 4=Often, 3=sometimes, 2= rarely, 1=Never)
Internet ads are Informative (0.41)
Look at ads that I am exposed to (0.28)
Innovative ads attract me (0.78)
Fills my information gap (0.54)
Analysis: The table 4.12 reveals that the respondents are inclined towards agree statement that the internet advertisements are informative, the mean this parameter is 0.38. The respondents more inclined towards disagreement of the statement that they like to look at most internet advertisements that they have exposed to, the mean of this parameter is 0.28 respectively. Most of the respondents are inclined towards agreement of the statement that innovative internet advertisements attract them the mean of this parameter is 0.78. Respondents incline towards the statement that internet advertising fills their information gap especially related to product or service. The mean of this parameter is 0.54.
@ Most of the respondents agree with the statement that they are sometimes offended by internet advertising. The mean of this parameter is 2.63. The respondents say that they are sometimes misled by internet advertisement. The mean of this factor is 3.07.
Interpretation: Most of the respondents feel that internet advertisements are informative and they fill the information gap i.e. they come to know about such things that they are not aware of. Even most of the respondents are attracted towards innovative advertisement. @ Many times respondents feel offended by internet ads whenever they are busy in doing there work & even are mislead by them sometimes.
6.3. Purchase behaviour towards internet advertising.
This part shows the frequency of using internet advertising to make purchase decisions. The respondents are classified under the group very often, often, sometimes, rarely and never. The respondents are asked to rate on the scale of very often, often, sometimes, rarely and never. Then the mean score for each factor is calculated. The distribution is given in the following table:
Table 6.3.13 Purchase behaviour w.r.t internet advertising. (N=100).
Parameters VO O S R N T. score Mean score
5 4 3 2 1
Use of internet advertisement to make purchase decisions
30 (6) 88 (22) 129 (43) 48 (24) 5 (5) 3 3
Purchase product on net. 5 (1) 52 (13) 99 (33) 86 (43) 10 (5) 252 2.52
Inquire about product and intent to purchase it after seeing internet advertisements.
25 (5) 100 (25) 117 (39) 56 (28) 3 (3) 301 3.01
VO= very often (5), O= often (4), S=sometimes (3), R= rarely (2), N=never (1), (…) = Number of responses
Figure 6.3.11 Purchase behaviour w.r.t internet advertising.
Analysis: The above table reveals that the respondents sometime use internet advertisement to make their purchase decisions. The mean of this parameter is 3. The respondents also sometime purchase product via net. The mean of this parameter is 2.52. The respondents sometime inquire about the product and intent to purchase it after seeing internet advertisements. The mean of this parameter is 3.01.
Interpretation: Most of the respondents buy products online and most importantly; they inquire a lot about the product after seeing it on internet advertisement.
6.3.1 Responsiveness for different mode of internet advertisements
This part shows responsiveness of all the respondents on various modes of internet advertisements. The respondents were asked to rate on the scale of highly non responsive, non responsive, neutral, responsive& highly responsive. Then the mean score for each mode is calculated. The results are given in the following table:
Table 6.3.14 Responsiveness for different mode of internet advertisements (N=100)
Mode of advertisement HNR NR N R HR T. Score Mean score
-2 -1 0 1 2
Pop up windows showing advertisements.
-20 (10) -43 (43) 0 (33) 14 (14) – -49 -0.49
– -44 (44) 0 (14) 42 (42) – -2 -0.02
Portion of personnel mail
-6 (3) -42 (42) 0 (26) 29 (29) – -19 -0.19
– -1 (1) 0 (15) 66 (66) 36 (18) 101 1.01
Advertising appearing on web. Some time blocking some view of it.
-16 (8) -37 (37) 0 (43) 12 (12) – -41 -0.41
-4 (2) -8 (8) 0 (62) 28 (28) – 16 0.16
HNR= Highly non responsive, NR= Non responsive, N= Neutral, R= Responsive,
HR= Highly responsive, T. Score= Total Score, (…) = Number of responses
Figure 6.3.12 Responsiveness for different mode of internet advertisements.
Popup Windows (-0.49)
E-mail Advertisement (-0.02)
Personnel mail Advertisement (-0.19)
Animated Advertisement (1.01)
Personalized E-mail (0.16)
Analysis: Above table shows that residents are responsive towards animated advertisement. The mean of it is 1.01. This mode of advertisement is followed by personalized advertisement with a mean of 0.16. Respondents’ don’t respond to ads blocking web page, ads in portion of personnel mail and popup ads with a mean score of -0.41, -0.19, -0.5 respectively.
Interpretation: Only few of the respondents don’t respond to animated ads, but otherwise every respondent respond to them. Personalized e-mail is also responsive, but not as much animated one. Ads blocking the web page are highly non-responsive one among all the respondents. Popup windows are also in the same category.
6.4.1 Trust on internet advertising
This part shows trust of all the respondents on various factors Like quality of the product which is advertised, site and product knowledge. The respondents were asked to rate on the scale of strongly disagree, disagree, neutral, agree and strongly agree. Then the mean score for this factor is calculated. The results are given in the following table:
6.4.15 Trust on internet advertising (N=100)
Parameters SD D N A SA T. score Mean score
-2 -1 0 1 2
In general I feel I can not trust on internet advertising
– -14 (14) 0 (34) 50 (50) 4 (2) 40 0.4
Products that I have used usually live up to the promises of quality and performance made in their internet advertisement.
– -5 (5) 0 (69) 26 (26) – 21 0.21
I can only trust internet advertisement on sites of reputed firms/ organization.
-8 (4) -6 (6) 0 (24) 65 (65) 2 (1) 53 0.53
I can only trust internet advertisements of reputed firms/ organization.
-4 (2) -7 (7) 0 (24) 61 (61) 12 (6) 62 0.62
My trust is because internet advertisement provides great and accurate detail of product and service knowledge.
-4 (2) -7 (7) 0 (63) 28 (28) – 17 0.17
SD= Strongly disagree, D= Disagree, N=Neutral, A=Agree, SA= Strongly agree, (…) = Number of responses
Figure 6.4.13 Trust on internet advertising
Analysis: Above given table shows that he respondents agree with the statement that they cannot trust on internet advertisement. The mean of parameter is 0.4. The respondents agree that the product that they have usually live up to the promises of quality and performance made in their internet advertisement. The mean is 0.21. The mean of the statement I can trust only trust internet advertisement on sites of reputed firms/organization is 0.53. It shows that respondents agree with the statement. The mean of the statement I can trust only trust internet advertisement of reputed firms/organization is 0.63. It shows that respondents agree with the statement.
The mean of the statement internet advertisement provides great and accurate detail of product and service knowledge is 0.17. This shows that respondents are more diverted towards agree statement.
Interpretation: Most of the respondents don’t trust internet advertisement, due to lack of depth maturity. They prefer advertisements of reputed & well established organizations. Even they trust much more on the ads which are on the sites of reputed organizations. Respondents are satisfied with the products that they bought online. They lived up to their expectations.
6.4.2 Trust on different mode of internet advertisements
This part shows trust of all the respondents on various modes of internet advertisements. The respondents were asked to rate on the scale of highly trust worthy, distrust worthy, neutral, trust worthy and highly trust worthy to various modes. Then the mean score for each factor is calculated. The results are given in the following table:
6.4.16 Trust on different mode of internet advertisements. (N=100)
Mode of advertisement HDW DW N TW HTW T. Score Mean Score
-2 -1 0 1 2
Pop up windows showing advertisements.
-12 (6) -36 (36) 0 (49) 9 (9) – -39 -0.39
– -33 (33) 0 (24) 43 (43) – 10 0.1
Portion of personnel mail
-6 (3) -36 (36) 0 (45) 16 (16) – -26 -0.26
Animated advertisement. – -42 (42) 0 (28) 19 (19) – -23 -0.23
– -2 (2) 0 (62) 36 (36) – 34 0.34
HDW= Highly distrust worthy, DW= Distrust worthy, N= Neutral, TW= Trust worthy, HTW= Highly trust worthy, (…) = number of responses
Figure 4.4.14 Trust on different mode of internet advertisements
Analysis: Above given table reveals that respondents have trust over personalized advertisement. The mean of it is 0.34. It is followed by e-mail advertisements with mean of 0.1. Respondents feel that popup window advertisements & animated advertisements are distrust worthy with a mean score of -0.39 & -0.23 respectively. It is the same with the advertisements which are a portion of personnel mail with a mean score of -0.26.
Interpretation: Respondents have more trust on personalized advertisement other than any format. They are quite conscious about security et al. Even people have trust on e-mail advertisement.
CHAPTER – 7
Recommendations for internet advertisers:-
• The advertiser should prefer animated advertisement & personalized advertisement due to its creativity. Animated advertisements have the ability to attract everyone due to differentiation. And personalized advertisements boost the confidence of the viewer and give feel of ‘I’ attitude.
• The advertiser should avoid pop up advertisement, portion of personnel mail advertisement because sometimes someone is working on a very important project et al on internet. It diverts & interrupts their work.
• Advertiser should not use advertisements which block the web page.
• Internet advertisements should be informative & innovative i.e. they should fill the information gap of the user. And should be innovative enough to grab the attention.
• Internet advertisement should have depth & maturity i.e. proper formatting should be followed & should have enough information to support the product that is being advertised.
• The advertiser should create confidence in users by providing their contact numbers such as customer care number et al. This will have a positive impact on the mind of the user.
CHAPTER – 8
CONCLUSION AND MAJOR FINDINGS
In the present business scenario of cutthroat competition, customer attitude has become the prime concern of each and every kind of industry. Companies are increasingly becoming customer focused. Companies can win customers and surge ahead of competitors by changing the customers’ attitude. World over businesses have realized that marketing is not the only factor in attracting and retaining customers. Other major factors responsible for the same are attitude through service quality and value. Even the best marketing companies in the world fail to sell products and services that fail to retain the customers’ attitude. So customer attitude is the keyword in today’s fiercely competitive business environment.
The understanding of customer attitude has become very important for the internet advertising. Internet advertising seems to have started again a steep growth path, and it is becoming more and more a source of competition for some of the traditional media. As more and more companies are advertising their product or service via internet advertising. So to retain their customers, internet advertising is one of the best advertising media for the advertiser. Various factors that can affect the customers’ attitude are mode of advertisement, confidence about the information provided by the advertiser, product/service quality shown in the advertisement, effect of advertisement on price of product or service, trust in internet advertising etc.. The current study is focused on examining the various factors related to internet users’ attitude from internet advertising with the following objectives:
To study the demographic profile of internet users’.
To study internet users’ attitudes toward internet advertising.
To suggest recommendations for internet advertisers.
In order to accomplish the objectives of the study, the primary data was collected. The population of the study comprised of cyber café users. There were 5 cyber café were selected on random basis. From the selected cyber cafes primary data was collected from the respondents. Random sampling was used to select the cyber cafes as well as the respondents. The information was collected through a pre-designed, structured schedule. A sample of 100 respondents was selected for the entire three objectives. The data was grouped into tables and analyzed using statistical tool like mean scores. The major findings which come out of the study are as followed with the conclusion.
• Average age of the respondents is 28.5 years. This shows that most of the people are youngsters.
• Majority of the respondents are students i.e. 49%, 32% of the respondents are in services & 19% of the respondents are professionals.
• 77% of the respondents are male & 23% are female. This shows that most of the people who use intent are males.
• 62% of the respondents are Post graduates or are pursuing PG, 34% of the respondents are graduates & rest 4% are undergraduate & Doctorate. This shows that people are highly literate.
• The average income of the respondents is Rs 19650/month.
• 24% of respondents look internet advertisement several times in a week while 24 % look once a week & 22% of the respondents look only once a month. And 16% look internet advertisement several times a month. But 14% of the respondents look internet advertisement everyday. This shows that people look at internet advertisement several times a week.
• 26% of the respondents study contents of advertisement once a month while 25% of the respondents study the content once a week & 19% of the respondents study contents several times a week. And 11% of the respondents study the content everyday. This shows that most of the people study the content of internet advertisement at least once a week.
• 83% of the respondents like the internet advertisement & only 13% of the respondents don’t like internet advertisement. This shows that internet advertisement is liked by many people.
• Most of the respondents like the animated advertisement which is followed by personalized advertisement with a mean score of 1.01 & 0.16 respectively. Popup windows showing advertisement & the advertisements which block some view of the webpage is disliked by the respondents with a mean score of -0.5 & -0.41 respectively. This shows that people like animated advertisement due to its creativity & personalized advertisement due to I attitude.
• Most of the internet advertisements are informative according to the respondents. Respondents somewhat like to look the internet advertisements that they have exposed to. Most of the respondents agree that Innovative internet advertisements attract them. Respondents agree that most of the time Internet advertising fill the information gap.
• Most of the respondents sometimes feel offended & misled by internet advertisement.
• Respondents sometimes use internet advertisements to make their purchase decisions.
• Respondents sometime purchase product via internet.
• Respondents often inquire about product and intent to purchase it after seeing internet advertising.
• Respondents are highly responsive towards animated advertisement which is followed by personalized advertisement. Popup advertisements & Advertisements that hide the web page are not responsive according to most of the respondents. This shows that people respond to those advertisements which they like, not to those which they don’t like.
• Most of the respondents agree that they cannot trust internet advertisement. Respondents agree that they trust advertisements of reputed companies & advertisements on reputed sites. This shows that people trust on those advertisements only which have a reputed brand name or a company associated with them.
• Respondents are indifferent about product they have used usually live up to the promise of quality and performance made in their internet advertising. Most of the respondents agree that they have trust on internet advertising because it provides great and accurate detail of product and service knowledge.
• Most of the respondents responded that personalized advertisements are trust worthy than other mode of advertisement. Respondents have trust on e-mail advertisement also. Popup advertisement, animated advertisement & advertisements hiding web page are not trusted by the respondents. This shows that people don’t like the things that are smashed on their faces. It is same with the advertisement. They like personalized & e-mail advertisement that is shown or given in their private space.
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I SHAISTA KHAN is studying the “INTERNET USERS’ ATTITUDE TOWARDS INTERNET ADVERTISEMENT; A STUDY WITH REFERENCE TO DELHI” With this study it is analyzed that what people like & look at internet advertisements in regular intervals of time. To check the various lacking points in the internet advertisements. So this schedule is designed by considering certain factors.
Name : ……………………………….
Age : ……………………………….
Address : ……………………………….
Gender : ……………………………….
Contact No. : ……………………………….
Please answer the following questions regarding general attitude towards internet advertising.
(Internet advertising includes advertising which appears on web page, a pop up or in E-mail).
1) Name of the respondent ____________________________________________ Address____________________________________________________________________Ph-No. ______________________________
2) Age ______________________
3) Occupation (Please tick) (a) Professional (b) Service (c) Retired (d) Student (e) Housewife (f) Any other
4) Gender (a) Male (b) Female
5) Marital Status (a) Married (b) Unmarried
6) Income (Rs. Per month) (Please tick) (a) < 15,000 (b) 15,000 – 30,000 (c) 30,000 – 45,000 (d) 45,000 – 60,000 (e) > 60,000
7) Education (Please mention the highest qualification you have) (a) Less than Graduation (b) Graduation (c) Post- Graduation (d) Doctorate (e) Any other
8) How often you look at internet advertising? (Please tick).
a) Never ………………………………….. b) Once a month…………..
c) Several times a month…………………. d) Once a week……………..
e) Several times a week……………………. f) Everyday………………
9) How often you read the contents of Internet Advertising? (Please Tick)
a) Never …………………………………..b) Once a month…………..
c) Several times a month………………….d) Once a week……………..
e) Several times a week………………….. g) Everyday…………………………
10) Do you think most of the internet advertisements have lack of depth and maturity?